Table of Contents


    Ph. Gignoux

    Sasanian queen who according to Ṭabarī ruled for a few months in 630.


    ʿA. ʿA. Kārang

    (or DEHḴᵛĀRAQĀN; in the local Azeri Turkish: Toḵargān), a town and a district (baḵš) of the šahrestān of Tabrīz.


    P. O. Skjærvø, Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh, J. R. Russell

    “dragon,” various kinds of snake-like, mostly gigantic, monsters living in the air, on earth, or in the sea (also designated by other terms) sometimes connected with natural phenomena, especially rain and eclipses.


    M. Dandamayev

    (from Old Persian azdā- “announcement” and kara- “maker”), officials of the Achaemenid chancery, the heralds, who made known, for example, the government edicts, court sentences.


    G. R. Hawting

    b. ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān, a governor of Khorasan who came into conflict with the caliph al-Manṣur, executed, probably in 142/759-60.


    G. R. Hawting

    B. RAWWĀD, a notable of Azerbaijan at the beginning of the 3rd/9th century, known mainly in connection with the revolt of Bābak, the leader of the Ḵorrami movement.


    Multiple Authors

    (Āḏarbāy[e]jān), historical region of northwestern Iran, east of Lake Urmia, since the Achaemenid era.

  • AZERBAIJAN i. Geography

    X. de Planhol

    characterized by volcanic constructions—along the “volcanic cicatrix” that follows the internal ridge of the Zagros and marks its contact with the central Iranian plateau. 

  • AZERBAIJAN ii. Archeology

    W. Kleiss

    comprises the two Iranian provinces of West Azerbaijan and East Azerbaijan, with administrative centers at Urmia (before 1979 Reżāʾīya) and Tabrīz respectively; it does not include “Northern Azerbaijan,” centered on Baku, which since 1829 has belonged to the Russian empire.

  • AZERBAIJAN iii. Pre-Islamic History

    K. Schippmann

    the northwestern province of Azerbaijan can look back on a long history. For the earliest periods, however, archeological research has barely begun.