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R. S. Humphreys
(Ar. Banū Ayyūb), a Kurdish family who first became prominent as members of the Zangid military establishment in Syria in the mid-sixth/twelfth century.
a poet of the fifth/eleventh century who versified the romance of Varqa o Golšāh.
J. P. Asmussen
Iranian demon known from Zoroastrian, Zurvanite, and, especially, Manichean sources.
Zelkova crenata or Siberian elm, a tree of the Ulmaceae family, for which also other scientific names, such as Zelkova carpinifolia, Zelkova hyrcana, Planera crenata, and Planera Richardi, have been proposed.
M. L. Chaumont, C. Toumanoff
(older ĀZĀT), a class of the Iranian nobility.
Major Indo-Muslim poet, biographer, and composer of chronograms, also known as Ḥassān-al-Hend (fl. 1116-1200/1704-86).
governor of Bahrain and the surrounding area in the time of Ḵosrow (probably Ḵosrow II Parvēz).
J. R. Perry
(d. 1781), a major contender for supremacy in western Iran after the death of Nāder Shah Afšār (r. 1736-47).
J. T. P. de Bruijn
physician, anthologist, and translator (b. Tehran, ca. 1854; d. Paris, 1936).
ABD-AL-QADIR AZAD published a newspaper, which he named Āzād (liberal, free), in Mašhad. In the editorials of this newspaper he attacked the government, and criticized the authorities severely. His paper was eventually banned by the newly-formed government of Reżā Shah Pahlavi, and ʿAbd-al-Qadir, who had by now assumed the name “Āzād” after his newspaper, was himself imprisoned.This Article Has Images/Tables.