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army commander and the head of the police under Reżā Shah (r. 1304-20 Š./1925-41).
(palace, veranda, balcony, portico), a Persian word used also in Arabic (īwān, līwān) and Turkish.
E. J. Keall
(or ṬĀQ-E KESRĀ) the Palace of Ḵosrow at Ctesiphon, the most famous of all Sasanian monuments and a landmark in the history of architecture, now only an imposing brick ruin.This Article Has Images/Tables.
Cl. Cahen, W. L. Hanaway, Jr.
a noun meaning literally “vagabond,” applied to members of medieval fotowwa (fotūwa) brotherhoods and comparable popular organizations.
I. K. Poonawala
Imami jurist and scholar of the 3rd-4th/9th-10th centuries.
a short treatise by Abū Ḥāmed Moḥammad Ḡazālī Ṭūsī (fl. 450-505/1058-1111), originally composed in Persian.
B. AMĪR ŠĒR ʿALĪ KHAN. See MOḤAMMAD AYYŪB KHAN.
R. S. Humphreys
(Ar. Banū Ayyūb), a Kurdish family who first became prominent as members of the Zangid military establishment in Syria in the mid-sixth/twelfth century.
a poet of the fifth/eleventh century who versified the romance of Varqa o Golšāh.
J. P. Asmussen
Iranian demon known from Zoroastrian, Zurvanite, and, especially, Manichean sources.