Table of Contents

  • AUSTRIA i. Relations with Persia

    Helmut Slaby

    Diplomatic and commercial relations between Austria and Persia have a long history, stretching back to the sixteenth century.


    X. Tremblay and N. Rastegar

    The present entry is intended as a synthetic history of the organization of Iranian studies (1) up to 1918 in all the Habsburg “hereditary countries,” which included the present Czech Republic and Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Bosnia, also parts of Poland, Romania, and Ukraine, and (2) since 1918 in the Republic of Austria exclusively.


    R. Schmitt

    name of a district of the satrapy Armina of the Achaemenid empire.


    M. A. Dandamayev

    name of several Achaemenid officials, especially the satrap of Lydia under the  Artaxerxes II, from 391 B.C. until the late 350s.

  • AVA

    C. E. Bosworth

    the basic modern form of the name of two small towns of northern Persia, normally written Āba in medieval Islamic sources.


    R. E. Emmerick

    Sanskrit term for a category of Buddhist narrative literature.


    R. B. Barnett

    an ancient cultural and administrative region lying between the Himalayas and the Ganges in North India, named after Ayodhyā, the setting of the Sanskrit epic Ramayana.


    R. E. Emmerick

    name given by H. W. Bailey to a Buddhist text written in archaizing Late Khotanese, ending with a dhāraṇī (Skt. “spell, sacred formula”) preceded by homage to the bodhisattvas.


    R. Hewsen

    a village in Armenia in the principality of Artaz southeast of the Iranian town of Mākū.

  • ĀVĀZ

    G. Tsuge

    Āvāz as a musical term has three basic meanings: (1) The classical vocal style of Iran, which is based on the elaborate modal system called dastgāh and sung mainly to classical Persian verses. (2) “Tune.” This term is used to denote an auxiliary mode in the dastgāh system.

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