Table of Contents

  • AZERBAIJAN xi. Music of Azerbaijan

    J. During

    The musical traditions of Azerbaijan were already distinct from those of the area now known as Soviet Azerbaijan, but they became definitively separated toward the end of the 19th century, with Iranian Azerbaijan opting for the purely Iranian style. Subsequently the music of the Soviet Azerbaijan underwent a period of Western acculturation.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • AZERBAIJAN xii. MONUMENTS

    Wolfram Kleiss

    The Iranian provinces of Azerbaijan, both West and East, possess a large number of monuments from all periods of history.

  • AZES

    D. W. Mac Dowell

    the name of two Indo-Scythian kings of the major dynasty ruling an empire based on the Punjab and Indus valley from about 50 B.C. to A.D. 30.

  • AẒFARĪ GŪRGĀNĪ

    M. Baqir

    18th-century Indo-Persian poet and lexicographer.

  • AZHAR-E ḴAR

    L. P. Smirnova

    “Azhar the ass,” nickname of AZHAR B. YAḤYĀ B. ZOHAYR B. FARQAD, third cousin, and military commander of the Saffarid amirs Yaʿqūb and ʿAmr b. Layṯ.

  • AŽI

    Cross-Reference

    (DAHĀKA). See AŽDAHĀ.

  • AZILISES

    D. W. MacDowall

    Indo-Scythian king of the dynasty of Azes in the Indus valley about the beginning of the Christian era.  

  • ʿAẒĪM NAVĀZ KHAN BAHĀDOR

    M. Baqir

    author of a Sunni account in Persian of the martyrdom of Imam Ḥosayn and superintendent of the compilation of a political and natural history of the Carnatic and of India in general. (fl. 1859).

  • ʿAẒĪMĀBĀD

    Q. Ahmad

    (Patna), ancient Pataliputra, present capital of Bihar state in northeast India.

  • ĀZĪN JOŠNAS

    A. Tafażżolī

    (ĀḎĪN JOŠNAS), a military commander of the Sasanian Hormazd IV (r. 579-90), killed in Hamadān on his way to fight the rebellious general Bahrām Čōbin.

  • ĀŽĪR

    N. Parvīn

    “Alarm bell,” a radical leftist Persian newspaper, printed at Tehran, May 1943 to June, 1945.

  • AZIŠMĀND

    M. Shaki

    “obstructed or hampered justice," one of the few Middle Persian exclusively legal terms.

  • ʿAZĪZ KHAN MOKRĪ

    J. Calmard

    SARDĀR-E KOLL (1792-1871), an army chief and dignitary of Qajar Iran.

  • ʿAZĪZ NASAFĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See NASAFĪ, ʿAZĪZ.

  • ʿAZĪZ-AL-DĪN, MOSTAWFĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ABŪ NAṢR MOSTAWFĪ.

  • ʿAZĪZ-AL-MOLK

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿALĪ EBRĀHĪM KHAN.

  • ʿAZĪZ-AL-SOLṬĀN

    A. Amanat

    (1879-1940), better known as Malījak(-e) Ṯānī [II], the boy favorite of Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah Qājār. 

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-DAWLA ŠĪRZĀD

    Cross-Reference

    See ŠĪRZĀD.

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-DAWLA, ABŪ ŠOJĀʾ FANNĀ ḴOSROW

    Ch. Bürgel and R. Mottahedeh

    (936-83), the greatest Buyid monarch and the most powerful ruler in the Islamic East in the last years of his life. 

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-DĪN ĪJĪ

    J. van Ess

    famous Shafeʿite jurist and Asḥʿarite theologian.

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-MOLK, ʿALĪ REŻĀ KHAN

    Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī

    during the Tobacco protest of 1891-92, ʿone of the chief mediators between the shah and the ʿolamāʾ of Tehran; regent of Iran in 1909-10.

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-MOLK, MOḤAMMAD ḤOSAYN

    Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī

    (d. 1867), a senior official in the first part of Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah Qājār’s reign. 

  • AZRAQĪ HERAVĪ

    Dj. Khaleghi Motlagh

    the pen-name of Abū Bakr b. Esmāʿīl Warrāq of Herat, a Persian poet of the 5th/11th century.

  • ĀZŪITI-

    M. Boyce

    an Avestan word meaning “oblation of fat,” also a divine being representing Fatness or Plenty.

  • ʿĀŠEQ JONUN

    music sample

  • As~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the As–Az entries