Table of Contents

  • AZERBAIJAN i. Geography

    X. de Planhol

    characterized by volcanic constructions—along the “volcanic cicatrix” that follows the internal ridge of the Zagros and marks its contact with the central Iranian plateau. 

  • AZERBAIJAN ii. Archeology

    W. Kleiss

    comprises the two Iranian provinces of West Azerbaijan and East Azerbaijan, with administrative centers at Urmia (before 1979 Reżāʾīya) and Tabrīz respectively; it does not include “Northern Azerbaijan,” centered on Baku, which since 1829 has belonged to the Russian empire.

  • AZERBAIJAN iii. Pre-Islamic History

    K. Schippmann

    the northwestern province of Azerbaijan can look back on a long history. For the earliest periods, however, archeological research has barely begun.

  • AZERBAIJAN iv. Islamic History to 1941

    C. E. Bosworth

    Background. Azerbaijan formed a separate province of the early Islamic caliphate, but its precise borders varied in different periods.

  • AZERBAIJAN v. History from 1941 to 1947

    B. Kuniholm

    Upon entering Iran, the Soviets dismantled frontier and customs posts between Iran and the USSR, and set up military posts on the southern border of the Soviet occupied zone. The de facto result was extension of the Soviet frontier into Iran.

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  • AZERBAIJAN vi. Population and its Occupations and Culture

    R. Tapper

    tribalism is no longer of great social relevance for most Azerbaijanis, but most have a recent history of tribal allegiances, whether Turkish or Kurdish.

  • AZERBAIJAN vii. The Iranian Language of Azerbaijan

    E. Yarshater

    Āḏarī (Ar. al-āḏarīya) was the Iranian language of Azerbaijan before the spread of the Turkish language, commonly called Azeri, in the region.

  • AZERBAIJAN viii. Azeri Turkish

    G. Doerfer

    Oghuz languages were earlier grouped into Turkish (of Turkey), Azeri, and Turkmen, but recent research has modified this simple picture.

  • AZERBAIJAN ix. Iranian Elements in Azeri Turkish

    L. Johanson

    perhaps after Uzbek, the Turkic language upon which Iranian has exerted the strongest impact—mainly in phonology, syntax and vocabulary, less in morphology.

  • AZERBAIJAN x. Azeri Turkish Literature

    H. Javadi and K. Burrill

    Due to bilingualism among the educated Turkic-speaking people of the area the use of Azeri prose was widespread until the reign of Reżā Shah Pahlavi (r. 1925-41).

  • AZERBAIJAN xi. Music of Azerbaijan

    J. During

    Iranian elements in the development of the Azeri tradition were numerous, as is shown by modern terminology (čahār meżrāb, bardāšt), as well as by certain pieces in the repertoire.

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  • AZERBAIJAN xii. MONUMENTS

    Wolfram Kleiss

    The Iranian provinces of Azerbaijan, both West and East, possess a large number of monuments from all periods of history.

  • AZES

    D. W. Mac Dowell

    the name of two Indo-Scythian kings of the major dynasty ruling an empire based on the Punjab and Indus valley from about 50 BCE to CE 30.

  • AẒFARĪ GŪRGĀNĪ

    M. Baqir

    18th-century Indo-Persian poet and lexicographer.

  • AZHAR-E ḴAR

    L. P. Smirnova

    “Azhar the ass,” nickname of AZHAR B. YAḤYĀ B. ZOHAYR B. FARQAD, third cousin, and military commander of the Saffarid amirs Yaʿqūb and ʿAmr b. Layṯ.

  • AŽI

    Cross-Reference

    (DAHĀKA). See AŽDAHĀ.

  • AZILISES

    D. W. MacDowall

    Indo-Scythian king of the dynasty of Azes in the Indus valley about the beginning of the Christian era.  

  • ʿAẒĪM NAVĀZ KHAN BAHĀDOR

    M. Baqir

    author of a Sunni account in Persian of the martyrdom of Imam Ḥosayn and superintendent of the compilation of a political and natural history of the Carnatic and of India in general. (fl. 1859).

  • ʿAẒĪMĀBĀD

    Q. Ahmad

    (Patna), ancient Pataliputra, present capital of Bihar state in northeast India.

  • ĀZĪN JOŠNAS

    A. Tafażżolī

    (ĀḎĪN JOŠNAS), a military commander of the Sasanian Hormazd IV (r. 579-90), killed in Hamadān on his way to fight the rebellious general Bahrām Čōbin.

  • ĀŽĪR

    N. Parvīn

    “Alarm bell,” a radical leftist Persian newspaper, printed at Tehran, May 1943 to June, 1945.

  • AZIŠMĀND

    M. Shaki

    “obstructed or hampered justice," one of the few Middle Persian exclusively legal terms.

  • ʿAZĪZ KHAN MOKRĪ

    J. Calmard

    SARDĀR-E KOLL (1792-1871), an army chief and dignitary of Qajar Iran.

  • ʿAZĪZ NASAFĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See NASAFĪ, ʿAZĪZ.

  • ʿAZĪZ-AL-DĪN, MOSTAWFĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ABŪ NAṢR MOSTAWFĪ.

  • ʿAZĪZ-AL-MOLK

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿALĪ EBRĀHĪM KHAN.

  • ʿAZĪZ-AL-SOLṬĀN

    A. Amanat

    (1879-1940), better known as Malījak(-e) Ṯānī [II], the boy favorite of Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah Qājār. 

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-DAWLA ŠĪRZĀD

    Cross-Reference

    See ŠĪRZĀD.

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-DAWLA, ABŪ ŠOJĀʾ FANNĀ ḴOSROW

    Ch. Bürgel and R. Mottahedeh

    (936-83), the greatest Buyid monarch and the most powerful ruler in the Islamic East in the last years of his life. 

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-DĪN ĪJĪ

    J. van Ess

    famous Shafeʿite jurist and Asḥʿarite theologian.

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-MOLK, ʿALĪ REŻĀ KHAN

    Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī

    during the Tobacco protest of 1891-92, ʿone of the chief mediators between the shah and the ʿolamāʾ of Tehran; regent of Iran in 1909-10.

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-MOLK, MOḤAMMAD ḤOSAYN

    Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī

    (d. 1867), a senior official in the first part of Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah Qājār’s reign. 

  • AZRAQĪ HERAVĪ

    Dj. Khaleghi Motlagh

    the pen-name of Abū Bakr b. Esmāʿīl Warrāq of Herat, a Persian poet of the 5th/11th century.

  • ĀZŪITI-

    M. Boyce

    an Avestan word meaning “oblation of fat,” also a divine being representing Fatness or Plenty.

  • Abbās Khāni - Navā

    music sample

  • Abu ‘Atā

    music sample

  • Afšāri

    music sample

  • Agar ān tork-e Širāzi

    music sample

  • Alimardan Khān

    music sample

  • Amiri-e kutāh o boland o Ṭālebā

    music sample

  • Āqor haley

    music sample

  • ‘Āref – Namidānam

    music sample

  • Armenian Šuštari

    music sample

  • ʿĀŠEQ JONUN

    music sample

  • Āvāz-e Dašti

    music sample

  • Āvāz-e Dašti

    music sample

  • As~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the As–Az entries