Table of Contents

  • ASSYRIANS IN IRAN ii. Literature of the Assyrians in Iran

    R. Macuch

    Although there were four missionary printing-houses in Urmia before the end of World War I, the Iranian Assyrian writers and poets were producing much more than they were able to publish. Many of their literary products remained in manuscript or were published only posthumously.

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  • ASSYRIANS IN IRAN iii. Assyrian Settlements Outside of Iran

    A. Ishaya

    The dispersion of the Assyrians took place during World War I, when the whole nation was uprooted from its homegrounds. The diaspora is still in progress. Presently in the Middle East, besides Iran, Assyrian settlements are located in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey.


    M. L. Chaumont

    The word astabid occurs in two Syriac texts as the title of a high-ranking Iranian officer and is applied to three different individuals.


    G. Gnoli

    Old Iranian female deity of rectitude and justice.


    P. O. Skjærvø

    Yt. 18, though dedicated to Aštād, the goddess of rectitude, does not mention her.


    ʿA.-Ḥ. Mawlawī, M. T.Moṣṭafawī, and E. Šakūrzāda

    the complex of buildings surrounding the tomb of the Imam ʿAlī al-Reżā at Mašhad.


    Eckart Ehlers, Marcel Bazin, and Christian Bromberger

    a township and a district of Lāhīǰān in the province of Gīlān.


    Multiple Authors

    a town and sub-province in the province of Ardabil, northern Iran.

  • ĀSTĀRĀ i. Town and sub-province

    M. Bazin

    The rural inhabitants grow rice, wheat, and vegetables on the coastal plain and wheat, corn (maize), and fruit trees on the lower slopes of the mountains, and graze flocks and herds between qešlāq and yeylāq

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  • ASTARA ii. Population, 1956-2011

    Mohammad Hossein Nejatian

    This article deals with the growth of Astara from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status.

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