Table of Contents

  • ANCIENT LETTERS

    N. Sims-Williams

    The group consists of five almost complete letters and a number of fragments of similar letters. Each letter was folded several times and bore the names of the sender and addressee on the outside. Most were tied with string; one letter was wrapped in silk and enclosed in an envelope of coarse cloth addressed to Samarkand.

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  • ʿANDALIB, NĀṢER MOḤAMMAD

    A. Schimmel

    Sufi writer (b. in Delhi 1105/1693-94, d. 1172/1759).

  • ANDĀMEŠ

    Cross-Reference

    See ANDĪMEŠK; DEZFŪL.

  • ANDARĀB

    C. E. Bosworth

    or ANDARĀBA, the name of a river and a town situated upon it in northern Afghanistan.

  • ANDARĪMĀN

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    the name of a number of Turanian heroes in the Šāh-nāma.

  • ANDARUN

    M. A. Djamalzadeh

    or ANDARŪNĪ (inside), the private quarters of well-to-do houses in contrast to bīrūnī. the public rooms usually reserved for men.

  • ANDARWAYWAZĪG

    C. J. Brunner

    Middle Persian term for “acrobat, tumbler” (lit. “one who plays in the air”).

  • ANDARZ

    S. Shaked, Z. Safa

    “precept, instruction, advice”: the literary genre in pre-Islamic and New Persian literatures.

  • ANDARZBAD

    M. L. Chaumont

    Sasanian administrative title meaning “chief advisor” for a city.

  • ANDARZGAR

    J. P. Asmussen

    Mid. Pers. term, “counselor, teacher.”

  • ANDEJĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    town in in the medieval Islamic province of Farḡāna, modern Russian Andizhan, in the easternmost part of the in the easternmost part of Uzbekistan.

  • ANDIJAN UPRISING

    Anke von Kuegelgen

    On the night of 9 Muḥarram 1316/30 May 1898, a group of about 2,000 poorly armed men attacked the 4th and 5th Russian Companies on the outskirts of Andijan under the leadership of the Naqšbandi Sufi Shaykh Dukči Išān (Muḥammad ʿAli Madali, ca. 1856-1898). 

  • ANDĪMEŠK

    X. De Planhol

    (also ANDĀMEŠ, ANDĀLMEŠK), the name of medieval Dezfūl.

  • ANDḴŪY

    D. N. Wilber

    a commercial town in northwestern Afghanistan.

  • ANDRAGORAS

    R. N. Frye

    Seleucid satrap of Parthia and Hyrcania, known primarily from his coins.

  • ANDREAS, FRIEDRICH CARL

    W. Lentz, D. N. MacKenzie, B. Schlerath

    German Iranologist (1846-1930).

  • ANĒRĀN

    Ph. Gignoux

    “non-Iran,” Middle Persian ethno-linguistic term generally used pejoratively to denote a political and religious enemy of Iran and Zoroastrianism.  

  • ANGAJĪ, ḤĀJJ MĪRZĀ ABŪ’L-ḤASAN

    H. Algar

    (1282-1357/1865-1939), a leading moǰtahed of Tabrīz, politically active during both the Constitutional Revolution and the reign of Reżā Shah.

  • ANGALYŪN

    J. P. Asmussen

    Persian rendering of the title of the Gospel of Mani.

  • ANGIOLELLO , GIOVANNI MARIA

    A. M. Piemontese

    (or DEGLI ANGIOLELLO) (1451-ca. 1525), Venetian adventurer, merchant, and author of an important historical report on the Aq Qoyunlū and early Safavid Persia.