Table of Contents

  • AMPELIUS, LUCIUS

    Philip Huyse

    author of a short encyclopaedic work Liber memorialis in fifty chapters covering such diverse subjects as cosmography (and astronomy), geography and ethnography, theology and especially history.

  • AMPHIBIANS

    S. C. Anderson

    Twenty species occur in Iran: six salamanders in three genera in two families and fourteen frogs and toads in four genera in four families. The amphibian fauna is most diverse in the northwestern provinces, which have the greatest rainfall and running water throughout the year.

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  • ʿAMR B. LAYṮ

    C. E. Bosworth

    ṢAFFĀRĪ, military commander and second ruler of the Saffarid dynasty of Sīstān (r. 879-900).

  • ʿAMR B. ʿOBAYD

    J. van Ess

    early Muʿtazilite theologian and traditionist (d. probably 144/761).

  • ʿAMR B. YAʿQŪB

    C. E. Bosworth

    great-grandson of the co-founder of the Saffarid dynasty and ephemeral boy amir in Sīstān, 299-301/912-13.

  • AMR BE MAʿRŪF

    W. Madelung

    Arabic al-amr be’l-maʿrūf wa’l-nahy ʿan al-monkar “enjoining what is proper or good and forbidding what is reprehensible or evil,” one of the principle religious duties in Islam.  

  • AMRANLU

    P. Oberling

    a small Turkic tribe which has settled down in the village of Galūgāh in Māzandarān.  

  • AMRĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ

    I. K. Poonawala

    (d. 999/1590-91 [?], poet and Sufi from Kūhpāya, a village near Isfahan.

  • AMṚTAPRABHADHĀRAṆĪ

    R. E. Emmerick

    name given by H. W. Bailey to a fifty-line text in Late Khotanese.

  • ĀMŪ DARYĀ

    B. Spuler

    river about 2,500 km long, regarded in ancient times as the boundary between Iran and Tūrān.

  • ʿAMŪOḠLĪ, ḤAYDAR KAN

    Cross-reference

    (ʿAMOḠLĪ). See ḤAYDAR KHAN ʿAMŪOḠLĪ.

  • AMURDĀD

    M. Boyce

    one of the seven great Aməša Spəntas of Zoroastrianism, the hypostasis of the concept of “not dying,” that is Long Life on this earth or Immortality in the hereafter.

  • ĀMŪYA

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀMOL.

  • AMYRTAEUS (II)

    E. Bresciani

    “The God Ammon has given him”, King of Egypt, 404-398 B.C., the only member of Manetho’s 29th dynasty.

  • AMYTIS

    R. Schmitt

    Median and Persian female name.

  • AN LU-SHAN

    E. G. Pulleyblank

    frontier general of mixed Sogdian and Turkish ancestry who rose to high rank during the latter part of the reign of Hsüan-tsung (713-56).

  • AN SHIH-KAO

    E. G. Pulleyblank

    or An Ch’ing, the earliest known translator of Buddhist texts into Chinese. 

  • AN-HSI

    E. G. Pulleyblank

    name by which the Parthian empire was known to the Chinese, a transcription of Aršak-, the name of the Parthian ruling house.

  • ANABASIS

    R. Schmitt

     title of ancient campaign accounts stylistically influenced by the so-called Periplus books.

  • ANĀHĪD

    M. Boyce, M. L. Chaumont, C. Bier

    Ardwīsūr Anāhīd, Middle Persian name of Arədvī Sūrā Anāhitā, a popular Zoroastrian yazatā; she is celebrated in Yašt 5 (known as the Ābān Yašt) which is one of the longest and best preserved of the Avestan hymns. Sūrā and anāhitā are common adjectives, meaning respectively “strong, mighty” and “undefiled, immaculate.”

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