Table of Contents

  • ARMENO-IRANIAN RELATIONS in the pre-Islamic period

    Nina Garsoian

    appearance of Armenian literature in the second half of the fifth century CE, in the generation which followed the great revolt of the Armenian nobles in 450 against Yazdgird II’s attempt to re-impose Zoroastrianism on their already Christian country, resulted in its almost total obliteration of Armenia’s ties to the Iranian world.

  • ARMIN

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    the fourth son of Kay Qobād in certain texts of the Šāh-nāma.

  • ARMINA

    Cross-Reference

    See ARMENIA AND IRAN i.

  • ARMOR

    J. W. Allan

    The main evidence for the form of armor used under the Achaemenids comes from Xenophon and Herodotus. Xenophon in his Cyropaedia describes the guard of Cyrus the Great as having bronze breastplates and helmets, while their horses wore bronze chamfrons and poitrels together with shoulder pieces (parameridia) which also protected the rider’s thighs.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ARMOR ii. In Eastern Iran

    Boris A. Litvinsky

    By the 6th, or even 7th, century BCE, the Scythian and Northern Caucasian nomads had formed a complete complex of defensive armor.

  • ARMY

    Multiple Authors

    a survey from early pre-Islamic times to the mid-20th century.

  • ARMY i. Pre-Islamic Iran

    A. Sh. Shahbazi

    materials for a study of pre-Islamic Iranian military concerns fall into four categories: textual evidence; archeological finds; documentary representations (on monuments and objects of art); and philological deductions. 

  • ARMY ii. Islamic, to the Mongol period

    C. E. Bosworth

    Arab armies which overran Sasanian Iraq and Iran in the middle decades of the 7th century A.D. comprised essentially the levée en masse of the male, free Muslim Arab cavalrymen.

  • ARMY iii. Safavid Period

    M. Haneda

    Shah Esmaʿil's army was comprised of tribal units, the majority of which were Turkmen, the remainder Kurds and Čaḡatāy.

  • ARMY iv a. Qajar Period

    Stephanie Cronin

    at the end of the 18th century, the military forces of the first Qajar ruler Āḡā Moḥammad Khan (r. 1789-97) resembled those of preceding dynasties.