Table of Contents


    H. Corbin

    “The Crimsoned Archangel” (lit., “The Red Intellect”), one of the visionary recitals or treatises on spiritual initiation of Sohravardī (d. 1191)

  • ĀQSŪ (1)

    R. E. Emmerick

    town in eastern Turkestan, modern Chinese Sinkiang, about six km to the north of the river Āqsū. It lies on the caravan route between Maralbāšī and Kučā.

  • ĀQSŪ (2)

    C. Naumann

    a river in the Āmū Daryā system. The upper course, called the Morḡāb in the Soviet Union, finds its source in the Little Pamir, the eastern part of Afghanistan’s Waḵān-Pāmīr mountains.


    J. R. Russell

    son of Aram, mythical king of Armenia.  


    J. van Ess

    doxographical work, famous especially for its information about non-Islamic religions and Greek philosophy, written by Ḥasan b. Mūsā al-Nawbaḵtī (d. between 300/912 and 310/922).

  • ʿARAB

    Multiple Authors

    As two of the most prominent ethnic elements in the Middle East, Arabs and Iranians have been in contact with each other, and at times have had their fortunes intertwined, for some three millennia. 

  • ʿARAB i. Arabs and Iran in the pre-Islamic period

    C. E. Bosworth

    Centuries of contacts between the Arabs and Persians should have left behind some legacy in the fields of thought and culture, but such a legacy is not easy to quantify or to evaluate.

  • ʿARAB ii. Arab conquest of Iran

    M. Morony

    During the first two centuries of the Muslim era (7th-8th centuries A.D.) the Sasanian state and much of the east Iranian region in Central Asia were conquered by the mostly Arab armies of the early Islamic state. 

  • ʿARAB iii. Arab settlements in Iran

    E. L. Daniel

    Arab settlements were critical in making the effects of the conquest long term, rather than transitory, and in facilitating the symbiosis of Iranian and Arab cultures within a mutual Islamic context.

  • ʿARAB iv. Arab tribes of Iran

    P. Oberling and B. Hourcade

    Estimates of the Arabic-speaking population of Iran range from 200,000 (1957) to 650,000 (1960). In present-day Iran there are still many families and tribes whose Arab origin can be traced.