Table of Contents

  • ARTAXERXES II

    R. Schmitt

    Achaemenid Great King whose personal name is given as Arsaces.

  • ARTAXERXES III

    R. Schmitt

    throne name of Ochus, Achaemenid king (r. 359-58 to 338-37 B.C.).

  • ARTAXIAS I

    J. Russell

    reigned 189-160 B.C., founder of the Artaxiad dynasty in Greater Armenia.

  • ARTAZOSTRE

    J. Kellens

    a daughter of Darius the Great.

  • ARTEMBARĒS

    M. A. Dandamayev

    Old Iranian proper name * Ṛtam-para-, meaning “who encourages the order.”

  • ARTEMISIA

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    queen of the Achaemenid province of Caria.

  • ARTEMITA IN APOLLONIATIS

    M. L. Chaumont

    city of the Parthian period in eastern Iraq.

  • ARTĒŠTĀR

    W. Sundermann

    a learned calque on and translation of the Avestan raθaēštā.

  • ARTĒŠTĀRĀN SĀLĀR

    W. Sundermann

    “chief of the warriors,” a high-ranking title in Sasanian times. 

  • ARTHROPODS

    ʿA. Aḥmadī and R. G. Tuck, Jr.

    or ARTHROPODA, largest and undoubtedly most diverse animal phylum, comprising an estimated seventy-five to eighty percent of all known species in the kingdom; representatives of both major extant subdivisions occur within Iran.

  • ARTOXARES

    M. Dandamayev

    a Paphlagonian eunuch at the court of Artaxerxes I and satrap of Armenia.

  • ARTSRUNI

    C. Toumanoff

    one of the most important princely families of Armenia, an offshoot of the Orontids, Achaemenian satraps and subsequently kings of Armenia, but claiming descent from Sennacherib of Assyria.

  • ARTYPHIOS

    A. Sh. Shahbazi

    or ARTYBIOS, Greek rendering of an Old Persian name.

  • ARTYSTONE

    R. Schmitt

    Persian female personal name.

  • ARUKKU

    M. Dandamayev

    a son of Cyrus I, king of Parsumaš and grandfather of Cyrus the Great.

  • ʿARŪSĪ

    A. Betteridge

    the secular wedding celebration which follows the wedding contract ceremony (ʿaqd).

  • ʿARŪŻ

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    the metrical system used by the Arab poets since pre-Islamic times.

  • ʿARŪŻĪ, YŪSOF

    Z. Safa

    rhetorician and poet of the 4th/10th century.

  • ARVAND GUŠNASP

    D. M. Lang

    Sasanian marzbān of Georgia under Ḵosrow I.

  • ARVAND-RŪD

    M. Kasheff

    name given to the river Tigris in some passages in the Mid. Pers. books.