Table of Contents

  • ARFAʿ, ḤASAN

    F. Azimi

    Iranian general, born in Tiflis in 1895, the eldest son of the veteran diplomat Prince Reżā Arfaʿ.

  • ARG

    J. R. Perry

    Its etymology is obscure: the term appears in Middle Persian only in the compound argbed a military rank and, though evidently in use, does not occur frequently in New Persian before the early 17th century. It is used also by Persian writers of Central Asia and northern India to designate the fortress of a city.

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  • ARG-E ʿALĪŠĀH

    K. Afsar

    the remains of the Masǰed-e ʿAlīšāh, a colossal mosque built in Tabrīz.

  • ARG-E KARĪM KHAN

    K. Afsar

    citadel built by the Zand ruler Karīm Khan (1163-93/1750-79).

  • ARG-E TEHRĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See TEHRAN.

  • ARḠANDĀB

    D. Balland

    the name of two non-contiguous administrative districts (woloswālī) in Afghanistan.

  • ARḠANDĀB RIVER

    D. Balland

    a river in the south of Afghanistan, the biggest tributary of the Helmand. The present name, in the form Āb-e Arḡand, is attested from the 7th/13th century.

  • ARGBED

    M. L. Chaumont

    a high-ranking title in the Parthian and Sasanian period.

  • ARḠŪN

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’L-QĀSEM SOLṬĀN.

  • ARḠŪN ĀQĀ

    P. Jackson

    a Mongol administrator in Iran (d. 1275).

  • ARḠŪN KHAN

    P. Jackson

    fourth il-khan of Iran (r.683-90/1284-91).

  • ARIA

    R. Schmitt

    region in the eastern part of the Persian empire.

  • ARIABIGNES

    A. Sh. Shahbazi

    an Achaemenid prince.

  • ARIAEUS

    A. Sh. Shahbazi

    military commander in the army of Cyrus the Younger.

  • ARIARAMNEIA

    A. Sh. Shahbazi

    a city in Cappadocia mentioned in an inscription.

  • ARIARAMNES

    Cross-Reference

    See ARIYĀRAMNA.

  • ARIARATUS

    C. J. Brunner

    one of the three sons of the Achaemenid King Artaxerxes II.

  • ARIMANIUS

    Cross-Reference

    Latin form of AHRIMAN.

  • ARIOBARZANES

    M. A. Dandamayev, A. Sh. Shahbazi, P. Lecoq

    Old Iranian proper name *Ārya-bṛzāna-, perhaps signifying “exalting the Aryans.”

  • ARISTAGORAS

    P. Tozzi

    tyrant of Miletus (late 6th-early 5th centuries B.C.).