Table of Contents

  • ARDAVĀN

    Cross-Reference

    (ARDAWĀN). See ARTABANUS.

  • ARDERIKKA

    R. Schmitt

    name of two ancient villages.

  • ARDESTĀN

    X. De Planhol, R. Hillenbrand

    a town of central Iran between Kāšān and Nāʾīn.

  • ARDESTĀNI

    P. Lecoq

    the dialect spoken in the small town of Ardestān.

  • ARDESTĀNĪ, ʿALĪ-AKBAR ḤOSAYNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿALĪ AKBAR ḤOSAYNĪ ARDESTĀNĪ.

  • ARDUMANIŠ

    P. Lecoq

    a Persian, son of Vahauka.

  • ARDWAHIŠT

    M. Boyce

    one of the six great Aməša Spəntas who, with Ahura Mazdā and/or his Holy Spirit, make up the Zoroastrian Heptad. Of the six, Aša has the clearest pre-Zoroastrian antecedents.

  • ARDWAHIŠT YAŠT

    M. Boyce

    (ORDĪBEHEŠT YAŠT), the third in the series of Avestan hymns addressed to individual divinities. It is devoted to one of the greatest of the Zoroastrian Aməša Spəntas, Aša Vahišta.

  • ARDWĪSŪR

    Cross-Reference

    See ANĀHĪD.

  • ARDWĪSŪR YAŠT

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀBĀN YAŠT.

  • ARƎDVĪ SŪRĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See ANĀHĪD.

  • ʿĀREF QAZVĪNĪ

    J. Matīnī, M. Caton

    ABU’L-QĀSEM (ca. 1300-1352/1882-1934), poet, musician, and singer during and after the Constitutional Revolution. 

  • ʿĀREFĪ HERAVĪ

    Z. Safa

    a poet of the 9th/15th century contemporary with the Timurid Šāhroḵ.

  • AREIA

    Cross-Reference

    See HERAT.

  • ARƎJAṰ.ASPA

    cross-reference

    See ARJĀSP.

  • ʿĀREŻ

    C. E. Bosworth

    the official in medieval eastern Islamic states who had charge of the administrative side of the military forces, being especially concerned with payment, recruitment, training, and inspection.

  • ARFAʿ, ḤASAN

    F. Azimi

    Iranian general, born in Tiflis in 1895, the eldest son of the veteran diplomat Prince Reżā Arfaʿ.

  • ARG

    J. R. Perry

    Its etymology is obscure: the term appears in Middle Persian only in the compound argbed a military rank and, though evidently in use, does not occur frequently in New Persian before the early 17th century. It is used also by Persian writers of Central Asia and northern India to designate the fortress of a city.

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  • ARG-E ʿALĪŠĀH

    K. Afsar

    the remains of the Masǰed-e ʿAlīšāh, a colossal mosque built in Tabrīz.

  • ARG-E KARĪM KHAN

    K. Afsar

    citadel built by the Zand ruler Karīm Khan (1163-93/1750-79).