Table of Contents

  • ANTIOCH (1)

    M. L. Chaumont

    town in northern Syria founded in 300 B.C. by Seleucus I Nicator. It was the capital of the Seleucids and became one of the main centers of caravan traffic.

  • ANTIOCH (2)

    J. Hansman

    city name given to a number of Seleucid foundations.

  • ANTIOCHUS

    D. Bing, J. Sievers

    name of thirteen kings of the Seleucid dynasty, several of whom were active in Iran.

  • ANTIOCHUS OF COMMAGENE

    G. Widengren

    (full title: Theos Dikaios Epiphanes Philoromaios Philhellen, Theos signifying his divinity), 1st-century BC Seleucid ruler.

  • ANTONY, MARK

    M. L. Chaumont

    Roman general (ca. 82-30 B.C.) who led a campaign in Armenia during the Parthian period.

  • ANŪŠA MOḤAMMAD

    G. L. Penrose

    B. ABU’L-ḠĀZĪ, ABU’L-MOẒAFFAR, Khan of Ḵīva 1663-87.

  • ANUŠAWAN

    J. R. Russell

    grandson of Ara, legendary king of Armenia, called sawsanuēr “devoted to the plane tree.”

  • ANŪŠERVĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    B. MANŪČEHR B. QĀBŪS, ruler of the Daylamī dynasty of the Ziyarids in Ṭabarestān and Gorgān during the early 11th century.

  • ANŪŠERVĀN KĀŠĀNĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    , ABŪ NAṢR ŠARAF-AL-DĪN, high official who served the Great Saljuq sultans and the ʿAbbasid caliph during the first half of the 6th/12th century.

  • ANŪŠTIGIN ḠARČAʾĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    Turkish slave commander of the Saljuqs; in the late 11th century, he bore the traditional title of Ḵᵛārazmšāh.

  • ANWĀR, SHAH QĀSEM

    Cross-Reference

    SHAH QĀSEM. See QĀSEM-E ANWĀR.

  • ANWĀR-E SOHAYLĪ

    G. M. Wickens

    a collection of fables by the Timurid prose-stylist Ḥosayn Wāʿeẓ Kāšefī.  

  • ANWARI

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    , AWḤAD-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD (or ʿALĪ), poet at the court of the Saljuqs in the 12th century.

  • ANZALĪ

    Marcel Bazin

    The town had 55,000 inhabitants in 1976 and 110,643 in 2006 (Markaz-e Āmār-e Irān), mainly Gilaks and Turks. The latter are mostly emigrants (mohâjer) from Azerbaijan when it was under Soviet rule, and they are particularly numerous in the fisheries and port activities.

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  • ANZAN

    Cross-Reference

    The name of an important Elamite region in western Fārs and of its chief city. See ANSHAN.

  • AOGƎMADAĒČĀ

    J. Duchesne-Guillemin

    A small prayer and meditation on death, made up of 29 Avestan quotations (one of them Gathic) embedded in a sermon in Pārsī (Pahlavi in Arabic script).

  • APADĀNA

    R. Schmitt, D. Stronach

    The term apadāna was possibly used exclusively to describe a distinctive type of columned audience hall introduced by Darius I (r. 522-486 B.C.). It is only known from four extant inscriptions: one of Darius II (r. 424-05 B.C.) and three of his son, Artaxerxes II (r. 405-359 B.C.).

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  • APĄM NAPĀT

    M. Boyce

    (Son of the Waters), Zoroastrian divinity of mysterious character whose true identity, like that of his Vedic counterpart, Apām Napāt, has been much debated.

  • APAMA

    A. Sh. Shahbazi

    name of several noble women of the Achaemenid and Hellenistic periods, probably related to the Av. apama- “the latest,” hence “the youngest [child], nestling.”

  • APARIMITĀYUḤ-SŪTRA

    R. E. Emmerick

    a Buddhist text belonging to the Mahāyāna tradition. It is concerned with the merit obtained by recalling the Buddha called Aparimitāyurjñānasuviniścitarāja.