Table of Contents

  • ARMENIA AND IRAN

    Multiple Authors

    series of articles that covers Irano-Armenian relations in pre-modern times. 

  • ARMENIA and IRAN i. Armina, Achaemenid province

    R. Schmitt

    a province (satrapy) of the Achaemenid empire; the inhabitants are called Arminiya- “Armenian.” 

  • ARMENIA AND IRAN ii. The pre-Islamic period

    M. L. Chaumont

    under Darius and Xerxes had much narrower boundaries than the future Armenia of the Artaxiads and the Arsacids.

  • ARMENIA AND IRAN iii. Armenian Religion

    J. R. Russell

    In the formative period the Armenians appear to have absorbed Hurrian, Hittite, and Urartian elements in their religious beliefs. Iran, however, was to be the dominant influence in Armenian spiritual culture.

  • ARMENIA AND IRAN iv. Iranian influences in Armenian Language

    R. Schmitt, H. W. Bailey

    attested in written sources since the 5th century A.D. and characterized from the very beginning of the literary documentation by a large number of Iranian loanwords.

  • ARMENIA and IRAN v. Accounts of Iran in Armenian sources

    M. Van Esbroeck

    Since Armenian writing itself begins only around 430, almost forty years after the disappearance of the Armenian Arsacid empire, the historians who write of Arsacid or earlier events belong to a later era.

  • ARMENIA AND IRAN vi. Armeno-Iranian relations in the Islamic period

    H. Papazian

    expansion of Islam in Iran caused a big rift between Armenia, already converted to Christianity, and Iran.

  • Armenians in India

    Cross-Reference

    See JULFA v. Armenians in India.

  • ARMENIANS OF MODERN IRAN

    A. Amurian and M. Kasheff

    Armenians can be found in almost every major city of Iran.

  • ARMENO-IRANIAN RELATIONS in the pre-Islamic period

    Nina Garsoian

    appearance of Armenian literature in the second half of the fifth century CE, in the generation which followed the great revolt of the Armenian nobles in 450 against Yazdgird II’s attempt to re-impose Zoroastrianism on their already Christian country, resulted in its almost total obliteration of Armenia’s ties to the Iranian world.

  • ARMIN

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    the fourth son of Kay Qobād in certain texts of the Šāh-nāma.

  • ARMINA

    Cross-Reference

    See ARMENIA AND IRAN i.

  • ARMOR

    J. W. Allan

    The main evidence for the form of armor used under the Achaemenids comes from Xenophon and Herodotus. Xenophon in his Cyropaedia describes the guard of Cyrus the Great as having bronze breastplates and helmets, while their horses wore bronze chamfrons and poitrels together with shoulder pieces (parameridia) which also protected the rider’s thighs.

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  • ARMOR ii. In Eastern Iran

    Boris A. Litvinsky

    By the 6th, or even 7th, century BCE, the Scythian and Northern Caucasian nomads had formed a complete complex of defensive armor.

  • ARMY

    Multiple Authors

    a survey from early pre-Islamic times to the mid-20th century.

  • ARMY i. Pre-Islamic Iran

    A. Sh. Shahbazi

    materials for a study of pre-Islamic Iranian military concerns fall into four categories: textual evidence; archeological finds; documentary representations (on monuments and objects of art); and philological deductions. 

  • ARMY ii. Islamic, to the Mongol period

    C. E. Bosworth

    Arab armies which overran Sasanian Iraq and Iran in the middle decades of the 7th century A.D. comprised essentially the levée en masse of the male, free Muslim Arab cavalrymen.

  • ARMY iii. Safavid Period

    M. Haneda

    Shah Esmaʿil's army was comprised of tribal units, the majority of which were Turkmen, the remainder Kurds and Čaḡatāy.

  • ARMY iv a. Qajar Period

    Stephanie Cronin

    at the end of the 18th century, the military forces of the first Qajar ruler Āḡā Moḥammad Khan (r. 1789-97) resembled those of preceding dynasties.

  • ARMY iv. Afšar and Zand Periods

    J. R. Perry

    Nāder Shah grew up a raider, made his early reputation as a mercenary, and came to power as commander-in-chief of a fugitive Safavid claimant in Afghan-occupied Iran; by force of arms he drove out the Afghans and intimidated the Ottoman Turks and Russians who had sought to partition Iran.

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  • ARMY v. Pahlavi Period

    M. J. Sheikh-ol-Islami

    While few foreign officers were employed, many cadets were sent abroad, mainly to French military academies. Consequently, the nascent military institutions were highly influenced by the style and organization which were prevalent in France.

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  • ARMY vi. In Afghanistan from 1919

    L. Dupree

    Using Turkish advisers, Amānallāh Khan (r. 1919-29)  unsuccessfully tried to create a nationalist-oriented army.

  • ARNAVĀZ

    A. Sh. Shahbazi

    one of the mythical king Jamšēd’s sisters.

  • ARNOLD, THOMAS WALKER

    B. W. Robinson

    , Sir (1864-1930), British orientalist.

  • ARPA KHAN

    P. Jackson

    10th Il-khan of Iran (r. 736/1335-36).

  • ARRAJĀN

    H. Gaube

    medieval city and province in southwestern Iran between Ḵūzestān and Fārs.

  • ARRĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    a region of eastern Transcaucasia.

  • ARRIAN

    M. L. Chaumont

    Greek historian (2nd cent. A.D.).

  • ARROWS in Eastern Iran

    Boris A. Litvinsky

    came in use along with the bow, and the two developed in parallel. In the Bronze Age in eastern Iran, metal arrowheads of bronze were widespread, while skillfully made stone arrowheads, inherited from the earlier period, remained in use. 

  • ARSACIDS

    Multiple Authors

    (Persian Aškānīān), Parthian dynasty which ruled Iran from about 250 B.C. to about 226 A.D. About the end of the fourth or at the latest by the middle of the third century B.C. the Parni had advanced as far as the frontiers of the Seleucid kingdom, whether in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea or on the river Tejen (Turkmenistan).

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  • ARSACIDS viii. MILITARY ARCHITECTURE OF PARTHIA

    Krzysztof Jakubiak

    Two main traditions can be observed in the military architecture of the period. In the western parts of the Parthian Empire, i.e., in the Mesopotamian plain, military and defensive systems and fortifications developed under a clearly strong influence of earlier civilizations that had existed in the region.

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  • ARŠAK

    Cross-Reference

    See ARSACIDS.

  • ARŠĀMA

    E. Bresciani

    name of several Achaemenid notables.

  • ARSAMES

    Cross-Reference

    See ARŠĀMA.

  • ARSANES

    Cross-Reference

    See NARSE.

  • ARSANJĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    a small town in Fārs on the northeastern fringes of the Zagros mountain massif.  

  • ARSANJĀNĪ, ḤASAN

    F. Azimi

    journalist and politician (1922-69).

  • ARSEN, KOCOYTỊ

    F. Thordarson

    Ossetic author (1872-1944).

  • ARSES

    P. LeCoq

    Greek rendering of an Old Persian name, used as a hypocoristic.

  • ARSITES

    A. SH. Shahbazi

    Greek rendering of an Old Persian name.

  • ARSLĀN B. ṬOḠREL

    Cross-Reference

    See SALJUQS OF IRAQ (pending).

  • ARSLĀN KHAN MOḤAMMAD

    Cross-Reference

    See ILAK-KHANIDS.

  • ARSLĀNŠĀH

    C. E. Bosworth

    Ghaznavid sultan (r. 509-11/1116-18).

  • ARSLĀNŠĀH B. KERMĀNŠĀH

    Cross-Reference

    See SALJUQS OF KERMĀN.

  • ARSLĀNŠAH B. TOḠRELŠĀH

    Cross-Reference

    See SALJUQS OF KERMĀN.

  • ARŠTĀT

    Cross-Reference

    See AŠTĀD.

  • ART IN IRAN

    Multiple Authors

    The history of art in Iran and Iranian lands.

  • ART IN IRAN i. NEOLITHIC TO MEDIAN

    E. Porada

    An important element of the art of Iran is the presence of composite beings. One type, here called demon, is a combination of man and animal walking on two legs. An example is the demon with the head of a mountain goat or a moufflon.

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  • ART IN IRAN ii. Median Art and Architecture

    P. Calmeyer

    We know that Medes were mentioned in neo Assyrian annals from the year 836 B.C. onwards; as late as in King Esarhaddon’s vassal treaties (672 B.C.) they are represented by petty princes: central kingship had not yet been established, the foundation of which was later ascribed to the legendary judge, Deïokes.

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  • ART IN IRAN iii. Achaemenid Art and Architecture

    P. Calmeyer

    No work of architecture or art can be attributed with certainty to an Achaemenid earlier than Cyrus the Great. Only a cylinder seal, now lost, but several times used on later bullae at Persepolis, can possibly have belonged to an older member of the family.

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