Table of Contents
M. L. Chaumont
a sophist of the first third of the 3rd century CE, from Praenest near Rome. His chief service to Iranian history was the preservation of some data from the works of Ctesias of Cnidus, the Greek physician of Artaxerxes II.
J. P. Asmussen
“wrath” in Younger Avestan, both metaphysically, as a distinct demon, and psychologically as the function and quality of that demon realized in man.
Z. Ahmad and W. Kirmani
Punjabi Persian poet (b. ca. 1070/1660, d. 1154/1741).
a poem in the motaqāreb meter by the 4th/10th century poet Abū Šakūr Balḵī.
N. R. Keddie
Outstanding ideologist and political activist of the late 19th century Muslim world, whose influence has continued strong in many Muslim countries (1254-1314/1838 or 39-97).
Ch. M. Kieffer
(afḡān), in current political usage, any citizen of Afghanistan, whatever his ethnic, tribal, or religious affiliation. According to the 1977 constitution of the Republic of Afghanistan (1973-78), all Afghans are equal in rights and obligations before the law.
(afḡānī), the unit of currency in modern Afghanistan.
(Islamic Republic of Afghanistan), landlocked country located in Central Asia and bordered by Iran to the west, Pakistan to the south and east, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan to the north, and China to the far northeast.
J. F. Shroder, Jr.
Afghanistan has an extreme continental, arid climate which is characterized by desert, steppe, and highland temperature and precipitation regimes.
M. Šafīq Yūnos
Climate studies have shown the importance of precipitation and altitude as conditioning factors for the diversity of Afghanistan’s flora.