Table of Contents

  • ADLER, ELKAN NATHAN

    Dalia Yasharpour

    avid traveler and collector of Hebrew, Judeo-Persian, and Judeo-Tajik manuscripts from the Jewish Persian and Bukharan communities (1861-1946). In 1921, personal circumstances compelled Adler to sell his manuscript and book collections to the Hebrew Union College of Cincinnati and the Jewish Theological Seminary of New York.

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  • ADMINISTRATION in Iran

    Multiple Authors

    This entry covers state administration in Iran in the modern period, from the rise of the Safavids to the fall of the Pahlavis in 1979. 

  • ADMINISTRATION vi. Safavid, Zand, and Qajar periods

    S. Bakhash

    The rise of the Safavids was marked by developments that significantly influenced the nature of political, military, and revenue administration.

  • ADMINISTRATION vii. Pahlavi period

    R. Sheikholeslami

    The constitution of 1906 and the supplementary laws of 1907 provided the juridical foundation for a legal-rational state within which the legislature was empowered to establish and modify the administration.

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  • ʿADNĪ, MAḤMŪD PĀŠĀ

    T. Yazici

    (879/1474), Ottoman vizier and poet, better known in Turkish literature by his pen name ʿAdnī.

  • ADRAPANA

    C. J. Brunner

    the third station from the western border of “Upper Media” recorded by Isidore of Charax in the 1st century CE.

  • ADRĀVVŪN

    M. F. Kanga

     Gujarati term for the Parsi betrothal ceremony (in Persian nāmzadī). 

  • ADUKANAIŠA

    R. Schmitt

    (a-du-u-k-n-i-š-), name of the first month (March-April) of the Old Persian calendar.

  • ĀDUR

    M. Boyce

    (and ādar) Middle Persian word for “fire;” the Avestan form is ātar (of unknown derivation), and the late form is arabicized in New Persian as āẕar.

  • ĀDUR BURZĒN-MIHR

    M. Boyce

    an Ātaš Bahrām, i.e., a Zoroastrian sacred fire of the highest grade.