Table of Contents

  • ʿALLĀMĪ, ABU’L-FAŻL

    Cross-Reference

    Historian, officer, chief secretary, and confidant of the Mughal emperor Akbar I; see ABU’L-FAŻL ʿALLĀMĪ.

  • ALLIANCE ISRAĒLITE UNIVERSELLE

    A. Netzer

    the first worldwide Jewish organization, through which a number of Jewish schools were founded in Iran.

  • ALMOND

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀDĀM.

  • ALP ARSLĀN

    K. A. Luther

    Saljuq sultan from 455/1063 to 465/1072.

  • ALPTIGIN

    C. E. Bosworth

    Turkish military slave commander of the Samanids and founder of Turkish power in eastern Afghanistan (d. 352/963).

  • ALQĀB VA ʿANĀWĪN

    A. Ašraf

    titles and forms of address, employed in Iran from pre-Islamic times.

  • ALQĀS MĪRZA

    C. Fleischer

    second of Shah Esmāʿīl’s four surviving sons (1516-1550) and leader of a revolt.

  • ALTAIC

    K. H. Menges

     The Altaic peoples and languages are distributed around 45° north latitude, from eastern Europe to the Pacific Ocean. 

  • ALTHEN, JEAN-BAPTISTE JOANNIS

    S. Schuster-Walser

    (1709-74),  who introduced the cultivation of madder into southern France. When his attempts to grow cotton in southern France proved fruitless, he began to cultivate Oriental madder; this proved so successful that madder soon became a main crop of the region.

  • ALTIN TEPE

    V. M. Masson

    a settlement of the Neolithic period and Bronze Age in the south of Turkmenistan near the village of Miana.