Table of Contents

  • ALLIANCE ISRAĒLITE UNIVERSELLE

    A. Netzer

    the first worldwide Jewish organization, through which a number of Jewish schools were founded in Iran.

  • ALMOND

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀDĀM.

  • ALP ARSLĀN

    K. A. Luther

    Saljuq sultan from 455/1063 to 465/1072.

  • ALPTIGIN

    C. E. Bosworth

    Turkish military slave commander of the Samanids and founder of Turkish power in eastern Afghanistan (d. 352/963).

  • ALQĀB VA ʿANĀWĪN

    A. Ašraf

    titles and forms of address, employed in Iran from pre-Islamic times.

  • ALQĀS MĪRZA

    C. Fleischer

    second of Shah Esmāʿīl’s four surviving sons (1516-1550) and leader of a revolt.

  • ALTAIC

    K. H. Menges

     The Altaic peoples and languages are distributed around 45° north latitude, from eastern Europe to the Pacific Ocean. 

  • ALTHEN, JEAN-BAPTISTE JOANNIS

    S. Schuster-Walser

    (1709-74),  who introduced the cultivation of madder into southern France. When his attempts to grow cotton in southern France proved fruitless, he began to cultivate Oriental madder; this proved so successful that madder soon became a main crop of the region.

  • ALTIN TEPE

    V. M. Masson

    a settlement of the Neolithic period and Bronze Age in the south of Turkmenistan near the village of Miana.

  • ALTŪN TAMḠĀ

    G. Doerfer

    “gold mark of ownership” (Tk.), a seal that was used throughout their empire by the Mongol rulers of Iran (including the Chupanids and Jalayerids), especially for financial or property decisions and in documents relating to financial transactions by the state.