Table of Contents

  • AKBAR I

    F. Lehmann

    (949-1014/1542-1605), third and greatest of the Mughal emperors of India. 

  • AKBAR KHAN ZAND

    J. R. Perry

    (d. 1196/1782), youngest son of Zakī Khan Zand.  

  • AKBAR-NĀMA

    R. M. Eaton

    Official history of the reign of the Mughal Emperor Akbar (964-1015/1556-1605), including a statistical gazetteer of sixteenth century North India, compiled by Abu’l-Fażl ʿAllāmī.

  • AḴBĀRĪ, MĪRZĀ MOḤAMMAD

    H. Algar

    A leading exponent of the Aḵbārī school of Islamic jurisprudence (feqh) and a violent polemicist against its opponents (1178-1233/1765-1818).

  • AḴBĀRĪYA

    E. Kohlberg

    A school in Imamite Shiʿism which maintains that the traditions (aḵbār) of the Imams are the main source of religious knowledge, in contrast to the Oṣūlī school.

  • AKES

    M. A. Dandamayev

    (Greek Akēs), a river in Central Asia, the modern Tejen or Harī-rūd (q.v.).

  • AḴESTĀN

    Ż. Sajjādī

    a late 12th-century ruler of the Šervānšāh dynasty, patron of the poet Ḵāqānī Šervānī.

  • AKHAVAN-E SALESS, MEHDI

    Saeid Rezvani

    Akhavan was born to an apothecary from Fahraj, and Maryam, a native of Khorasan.  He completed his elementary education in Mashad and entered the city's Technical School in 1941 to study welding;  he graduated in 1947. He was attracted to music in his youth, and, wary of his father’s displeasure, secretly learned to play the tār

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  • ʿAKKĀS-BĀŠĪ

    F. Gaffary

    photographer and pioneer motion-picture cameraman (1874-1915).

  • AḴLĀQ

    F. Rahman

    “ethics” (plural form of ḵoloq “inborn character, moral character, moral virtue”).