Table of Contents

  • ALBUQUERQUE, ALFONSO DE

    J. Aubin

    (ca. 1460-1515), admiral in the Indian Ocean (1504, 1506-08), second governor of Portuguese India (1509-15), a great conqueror, and the real founder of the Portuguese empire in the Orient.

  • ALCHASAI

    J. P. Asmussen

    a sectarian in the early Christian Church, 1st-2nd centuries CE, in the time of Trajan. 

  • ĀLČĪ

    D. O. Morgan

    (“sealer”), a Turkish term (from āl “red seal”) designating an il-khanid chancery official.

  • ALDANMIŠ KÄVAKEB

    S. Soucek

    Azeri Turkish title of a narrative by Āḵūndzāda (1812-78).

  • ʿĀLEMPUR, Moḥyi-al-Din

    Habib Borjian

    (Muhiddin Olimpur/Olimov), Tajik journalist, photographer, and intellectual figure who was instrumental in strengthening cultural ties among Persianate societies (1945-1995).

  • ALESSANDRI

    A. M. Piemontese

    (d. after 1595), Venetian secretary and diplomat, author of an important report on Safavid Persia.

  • ALEXANDER OF LYCOPOLIS

    G. Widengren

    apparently a Neoplatonic philosopher living in Egypt about 300 CE.

  • ALEXANDER THE GREAT

    P. Briant

    (356-323 B.C.). Ascending the throne of Macedonia on the assassination of his father Philip II in 336, Alexander quickly took up Philip’s grand scheme to land an army in Asia and “liberate the Greek cities from the Achaemenid yoke;” but from the first his territorial ambitions appear to have reached beyond the Mediterranean horizon.

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  • ALEXANDER THE GREAT ii. In Zoroastrian Tradition

    F. M. Kotwal and P. G. Kreyenbroek

    heritage of the Sasanian period includes two widely divergent storylines about Alexander, both of which were presumably transmitted by Zoroastrians and can therefore be labelled “Zoroastrian.”

  • ALEXANDER, PRINCE

    G. Bournoutian

    (known in Persian as ESKANDAR MĪRZĀ), pro-Persian member of the royal family of Georgia (b. 1770, d. after 1830).

  • ALEXANDRIA

    P. Leriche

    general designation of cities whose foundation is credited to Alexander the Great (356-23 B.C.).

  • ALEXANDROPOLIS

    P. Leriche

    name of a number of cities. According to certain historians, these cities were founded after Alexander’s death; others call some of these same cities Alexandria.

  • ALF LAYLA WA LAYLA

    Ch. Pellat

    “One thousand nights and one night,” Arabic title of the world-famous collection of tales known in English as The Arabian Nights

  • ALFARIC, PROSPER

    H. C. Puech

    (1876-1955), French historian of religions.  

  • ALFĪYA VA ŠALFĪYA

    Cross-Reference

    name given to illustrated books, in particular one by Azraqī, describing various kinds of sexual relationships between men and women. See AZRAQI.

  • ʿALĪ TABRĪZĪ (calligrapher)

    P. P. Soucek

    (or MĪR ʿALĪ TABRĪZĪ), 8th/14th century calligrapher who is often credited with the invention of the nastaʿlīq script.

  • ʿALĪ ʿAJAMĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿALĪ, ḴᵛĀJA.

  • ʿALĪ AKBAR

    J. Calmard

    Imam Ḥosayn’s eldest son, killed at the age of 18, 19, or 25 at the battle of Karbalā on the day of ʿĀšūrā (10 Moḥarram 61/10 October 680).

  • ʿALĪ AKBAR ḤOSAYNĪ ARDESTĀNĪ

    K. A. Nizami

    Indo-Muslim taḏkera writer, remembered solely for his unpublished Maǰmaʿ al-awlīāʾ, an encyclopedia of Sufi saints compiled in 1043/1633-34 and dedicated to the Mughal emperor Shah Jahān (1037-68/1628-58).

  • ʿALĪ AKBAR ḴEṬĀʾĪ

    T. Yazici

    (15th-16th centuries), author of the Persian Ḵeṭāy-nāma or “Book of Cathay,” i.e., of China.