Table of Contents

  • ALĀFRANK

    D. O. Morgan

    or ALA-FIRENG, the eldest son of the Il-khan Geiḵatu (r. 690-94/1291-95).

  • ʿALĀʾI, ŠOʿĀʿ-ALLĀH

    Firuz Kazemzadeh

    (1899-1984), prominent government official and a leading Bahai.

  • ALAK-DOLAK

    H. Javadi

    the game of tipcat, played for centuries in Iran, Afghanistan, and surrounding countries.

  • ʿĀLAM II, SHAH

    S. S. Alvi

    Mughal emperor (1173-1253/1759-1806).

  • ʿALAM KHAN

    J. R. Perry

    viceroy of the Afsharid state of Khorasan, 1161-68/1748-54.  

  • ʿALAM VA ʿALĀMAT

    J. Calmard, J. W. Allan

    In both Arabic and Persian, the word ʿalam conveys various senses connected with the general meaning of a distinctive sign or mark. In Persian the word had early carried the meaning of ensign and of standard or flag. The same meanings may also be rendered by the word ʿalāma, which derives from the same root.

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  • AʿLAM, HUŠANG

    Mehran Afshari and EIr

    (1928-2007), scholar of the history of science. 

  • ʿALAM, Moḥammad Ebrāhim

    Hormoz Davarpanah

    (1881-1944), one of the most eminent local magnates and landowners of the late Qajar and early Pahlavi period.

  • AʿLAM, MOẒAFFAR

    Baqer Aqeli

    Sardār Enteṣār (1882-1973), provincial governor, minister of foreign affairs, military minister plenipotentiary. 

  • AʿLAM-AL-DAWLA

    cross reference

    See ṮAQAFĪ, ḴALĪL KHAN.

  • ʿALAM-AL-HODĀ

    W. Madelung

    leading Imamite scholar, man of letters, and naqīb (syndic) of the Talibids in Baghdad.

  • ʿĀLAM-E NESVĀN

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    a magazine founded in Mīzān 1299 Š./September 1920, one of the earliest periodicals published by and for women.

  • ʿĀLAMĀRĀ-YE ʿABBĀSĪ

    R. M. Savory

    a Safavid chronicle written by Eskandar Beg Monšī (1560-1632). 

  • ʿĀLAMĀRĀ-YE ŠĀH ESMĀʿĪL

    R. McChesney

    an anonymous narrative of the life of Shah Esmāʿīl (r. 907-30/1501-24), the founder of the Safavid dynasty in Iran.

  • ʿALĀMĀT-E ŻOHŪR

    Cross-Reference

    See APOCALYPTIC.

  • ALAMŪT

    B. Hourcade

    Until the agrarian reform, the villages of the valleys were dominated by large land-owners residing in Ṭālaqān, Qazvīn or Tehran; only the villages of shepherds at high altitudes belonged to their inhabitants. Most of the villages are situated on the slopes of the right bank of the valley, exposed to the south and sheltered from floods.

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  • ALAMŪT DIALECTS

    Cross-Reference

    See QAZVĪN DIALECTS.

  • ALANS

    V. I. Abaev, H. W. Bailey

    an ancient Iranian tribe of the northern (Scythian, Saka, Sarmatian, Massagete) group, known to classical writers from the first centuries CE.

  • ĀLĀT

    F. M. Kotwal and J. W. Boyd

    “utensils,” for Parsis the “sacred apparatus” employed in Zoroastrian rituals. 

  • ALAVI, BOZORG

    Ḥasan Mirʿābedini

    (1904-1997), leftist writer and one of the most noted Persian novelists of the 20th century, whose works were banned in Iran from 1953 to 1979.