Table of Contents

  • ʿALAM-AL-HODĀ

    W. Madelung

    leading Imamite scholar, man of letters, and naqīb (syndic) of the Talibids in Baghdad.

  • ʿĀLAM-E NESVĀN

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    a magazine founded in Mīzān 1299 Š./September 1920, one of the earliest periodicals published by and for women.

  • ʿĀLAMĀRĀ-YE ʿABBĀSĪ

    R. M. Savory

    a Safavid chronicle written by Eskandar Beg Monšī (1560-1632). 

  • ʿĀLAMĀRĀ-YE ŠĀH ESMĀʿĪL

    R. McChesney

    an anonymous narrative of the life of Shah Esmāʿīl (r. 907-30/1501-24), the founder of the Safavid dynasty in Iran.

  • ʿALĀMĀT-E ŻOHŪR

    Cross-Reference

    See APOCALYPTIC.

  • ALAMŪT

    B. Hourcade

    Until the agrarian reform, the villages of the valleys were dominated by large land-owners residing in Ṭālaqān, Qazvīn or Tehran; only the villages of shepherds at high altitudes belonged to their inhabitants. Most of the villages are situated on the slopes of the right bank of the valley, exposed to the south and sheltered from floods.

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  • ALAMŪT DIALECTS

    Cross-Reference

    See QAZVĪN DIALECTS.

  • ALANS

    V. I. Abaev, H. W. Bailey

    an ancient Iranian tribe of the northern (Scythian, Saka, Sarmatian, Massagete) group, known to classical writers from the first centuries CE.

  • ĀLĀT

    F. M. Kotwal and J. W. Boyd

    “utensils,” for Parsis the “sacred apparatus” employed in Zoroastrian rituals. 

  • ALAVI, Bozorg

    Ḥasan Mirʿābedini

    (1904-1997), noted Persian novelist.

  • ʿALAWAYH

    D. M. Dunlop

    AL-AʿSAR (“the Left-handed”), a noted singer at the ʿAbbasid court under Hārūn al-Rašīd and his successors, ca. 184-230/800-54.

  • ʿALAWĪ

    W. Kadi

    the nesba used to denote descendants, political states, or sects connected with one or another ʿAli; more particularly, it is employed to refer to a Shiʿite sect centered today in Syria.

  • ʿALAWĪ, ABD-AL-KARĪM

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-KARĪM ʿALAVĪ.

  • ʿALAWĪ, AḤMAD

    Cross-Reference

    See AḤMAD ʿALAWĪ.

  • ʿALAWĪS

    Cross-Reference

    OF ṬABARESTĀN, DAYLAMĀN, AND GĪLĀN. See ʿALIDS.

  • ʿALAWĪYAT AL-AʿSAR

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿALAWAYH.

  • ĀLBĀLŪ

    A. Parsa

    (or ĀLŪBĀLŪ), sour cherry (Cerasus vulgaris), a tree of western Asia and eastern Europe.

  • ALBANIA

    M. L. Chaumont

    an ancient country in the Caucasus (for Albania in Islamic times, see Arrān). 

  • ALBORZ

    W. Eilers, M. Boyce, M. Bazin, E. Ehlers, B. Hourcade

    The older name of the range is unknown; perhaps, however, the Assyrian name Bikni designated Mt. Damāvand, the volcanic cone northeast of Tehran. In the Sasanian period part of the region may have been known by the Middle Persian Padišxwār-gar. Ferdowsī in the Šāh-nāma refers to the Alborz mountains as though they lay in India.

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  • ALBORZ COLLEGE

    Y. Armajani

    an American Presbyterian missionary institution in Tehran; starting as a grade school in 1873, it grew to a junior college in 1924 and an accredited liberal arts college by 1928. In 1940 it was closed and its property bought by the government of Iran.