Table of Contents

  • AGRA

    G. Hambly

    City and district center in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India, situated on the west bank of the river Jumna (Yamonā) approximately 125 miles south of Delhi.


    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    (Av. Aγraēraθa), Turanian warrior and brother of Afrāsīāb in the Avestan yašts and in the the Šāh-nāma.


    E. Ehlers

    The tendency to possess not certain, regionally fixed parts of the land but shares of the total, is made possible by the custom of splitting each property or any part of it into “ideal” or “imaginary” shares or allotments.

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  • ĀHAK

    E. Ehlers, T. S. Kawami

    “lime,” a solid, white substance consisting essentially of calcium oxide.

  • ĀHAN

    V. C. Pigott

    With the Tartar conquest of Syria, Tamerlane is said to have deported to Iran the skilled craftsmen he captured. It is suggested that from this point onward Iran supplied itself as well as India and the west with the finest damascene arms and armor, though the steel ingots still originated in India.

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  • AHAR

    ʿA. ʿA. Kārang

    the name of a county (šahrestān) and town in Azerbaijan.


    ʿA. ʿA. Kārang

    Originating in the mountains of Eškanbar, Sārī Čaman and Qarāǰa-dāḡ, the Ahar river runs from east to west.


    İ. Aka

    (8th/14th cent.), author of Tārīḵ-eŠāh Oways, dedicated to the Jalayerid ruler Oways (757-76/1356-74).


    W. S. McCullough

    name of a Persian king in pre-Christian Jewish tradition; it appears in the biblical books of Esther (1.1 et passim), Ezra (4.6), and Daniel (9.1) and in the apocryphal book of Tobit (14.15).


    R. M. Savory

    fines collected in Safavid times by the officers of the night watch (aḥdāṯ), who were under the supervision of the dārūḡa.