Table of Contents

  • ĀFRĪNAGĀN

    M. F. Kanga

    a term for one of the outer Zoroastrian liturgical services.

  • AFŠĀN

    P. P. Soucek

    (“sprinkling”), the decoration of paper with flecks of gold and silver, sometimes called zarafšān “gold sprinkling.”

  • AFŠĀR

    P. Oberling

    one of the 24 original Ḡuz Turkic tribes.

  • AFŠĀR, AḤMAD SOLṬĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See AḤMAD SOLṬĀN.

  • AFŠĀR, ḤĀJJĪ BĀBĀ

    Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī

    court physician under Moḥammad Shah Qāǰār.

  • AFŠĀRĪ

    H. Farhat

    one of the twelve dastgāhs or modal systems of classical Iranian music. In the contemporary tradition, Afšārī is customarily classified as a derivative of the dastgāh Šūr. In fact, however, Afšārī is quite independent and possesses its own modal characteristics as well as its own forūd (cadence) pattern.

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  • AFSHARIDS

    J. R. Perry

    actual power was exercised for most of this sixty years not by the nominal ruler but by military leaders or other court factions, and for a brief time by Solaymān II, whose reign was an attempted Safavid restoration. The remaining parts of Nāder’s empire were now the sphere of the Zand dynasty in western Iran.

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  • AFŠĪN

    C. E. Bosworth

    princely title of the rulers of Ošrūsana at the time of the Muslim conquest, the most famous of whom was Ḵeyḏār (Ḥaydar) b. Kāvūs, d. Šaʿbān, 226/May-June, 841.

  • AFŠĪN B. DĪVDĀD

    ʿA. Kārang and F. R. C. Bagley

    founder of the semi-independent Sajid dynasty in Azerbaijan (r. 276/889-90-317/929).

  • AFSŪS

    M. Baqir

    (AFSŌS), the taḵalloṣ of MĪR ŠĪR-ʿALĪ, late 18th century poet and translator of India.