Table of Contents


    Z. Ahmad

    Poet, son of Nawwāb Amīr-al-dawla, the founder of the state of Tonk (b. 1233/1817-18, d. 21 Ramażān 1278/22 March 1861).

  • ʿAFĪF

    N. H. Zaidi

    (d. ca. 1399), author of Tārīḵ-e Fīrūzšāhī, a Persian life of Fīrūz Shah Toḡloq (r. 1351-88).


    Jalal Matini

    (d. 1996), scholar and author of lexical guides and handbooks of mythology. 


    T. Yazici

    author of texts on the virtues of Jalāl-al-dīn Rūmī and his disciples (13th-14th centuries).


    M. Momen

    (“twigs” or “branches”), term used in the Bahaʾi faith (initially by Bahāʾallāh) to designate certain lines of descent in the maternal family of the Bāb.

  • AFRĀ

    A. Parsa

    Persian term for the maple tree (genus Acer), also embracing a few shrubs of the family Aceraceae.


    J. P. Asmussen

    name attested in Syriac (ʾfrhṭ) of a number of Iranian Christian churchmen.


    J. P. Asmussen

    Persian bishop of the mid-4th century CE, author in Syriac.


    E. Yarshater

    By far the most prominent of Turanian kings, Afrāsīāb is depicted in Iranian tradition as a formidable warrior and skillful general; an agent of Ahriman, he is endowed with magical powers and bent on the destruction of Iranian lands.

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  • AFRĀSĪĀB i. The Archeological Site

    G. A. Pugachenkova and Ī. V. Rtveladze

    the ruined site of ancient and medieval Samarqand in the northern part of the modern town.