Table of Contents

  • AČAṘEAN, HRAČʾEAY YAKOBI

    J. R. Russell

    Armenian linguist, born 8 March 1876 (O. S.; 20 March N. S.) at Constantinople. 

  • ACƎKZĪ

    C. M. Kieffer

    (ACAKZĪ, or AČƎKZĪ, AČAKẒĪ), a tribal grouping of Paṧtūn clans in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

  • ACHAEMENES

    M. A. Dandamayev

    (Greek Achaiménēs), Old Persian proper name Haxāmaniš, traditionally derived from haxā- “friend” and manah “thinking power.”

  • ACHAEMENID DYNASTY

    R. Schmitt

    Two principles of their election, dynastic and divine right, belong to contrasting areas and periods—respectively, to prehistoric nomad tribes of Indo-European origin and to the highly civilized Mesopotamian peoples. Three constitutive elements thus enter into Achaemenid kingship and royal ideology: (a) Near Eastern heritage, (b) Indo-Iranian heritage, and (c) a Persian combination of these two.

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  • ACHAEMENID RELIGION

    M. Boyce

    Greek writings establish with all reasonable clarity that the later Achaemenids were Zoroastrians; but the religion of the early kings has been much debated.

  • ACHAEMENID SATRAPIES

    Bruno Jacobs

    the administrative units of the Achaemenid empire.

  • ACHAEMENID TAXATION

    M. A. Dandamayev

     a most important component of the Achaemenid state administration.

  • ACHMA

    R. E. Emmerick

    (a Turkish word meaning “opening”), a town in the Domoko (Dumaqu) oasis near Khotan, so named with reference to the local springs.

  • ĀÇINA

    M. A. Dandamayev

    son of Upadarma, a rebel against Darius I.

  • ĀÇIYĀDIYA

    R. Schmitt

    (a-ç-i-y-a-di-i-y-), name of the ninth month (November-December) of the Old Persian calendar.

  • ACKERMAN, PHYLLIS

    Cornelia Montgomery

    (b. Oakland, California, 1893; d. Shiraz, 25 January 1977), author, editor, teacher and translator in the fields of Persian textiles, European tapestries, Chinese bronzes, iconography, and symbolism.

  • ACTA ARCHELAI

    Cross-Reference

    See ARCHELAUS.

  • ACTS OF ĀDUR-HORMIZD AND OF ANĀHĪD

    J. P. Asmussen

    Syriac martyrological texts.  

  • ACTS OF THE PERSIAN MARTYRS

    A. Vööbus

    a collection of the acts of martyrdom under Šāpūr II (309-79 CE).

  • ĀDĀ

    J. Duchesne-Guillemin

    “requital” in Avestan.

  • ADAB

    Multiple Authors

    Term applied to a genre of literature as well as to refined and well-mannered conduct; in Persian it is often synonymous with farhang.

  • ADAB i. Adab in Iran

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    Apart from a genre of literature (see section ii), adab in Persian means education, culture, good behavior, politeness, proper demeanor; thus it is closely linked with the concept of ethics.

  • ADAB ii. Adab in Arabic Literature

    Ch. Pellat

    In modern Arabic usage the term adab (plur. ādāb) denotes “literature,” but in classical Islam it was applied only to a limited range of literary works.

  • ĀDĀB AL-ḤARB WA’L-ŠAJĀʿA

    C. E. Bosworth

    (“The correct usages of war and bravery”), a treatise in a straightforward Persian prose style in the “Mirror for Princes” genre, written by Faḵr-al-dīn Moḥammad b. Manṣūr Mobārakšāh, called Faḵr-e Modabber.

  • ADAB AL-KABĪR

    I. Abbas

    an Arabic work by Ebn al-Moqalia ž dealing largely with Persian manners and court etiquette.

  • ADAB AL-KĀTEB

    C. E. Bosworth

    (“Manual for secretaries”), a work composed by the celebrated Baghdad scholar probably of Khorasanian mawlā origin, Ebn Qotayba (213-76/828-89).

  • ĀDĀB AL-MAŠQ

    M. Dabīrsīāqī

    (“Manual of penmanship”), a short essay on writing the nastaʿlīq hand by the noted Safavid calligrapher Mīr ʿEmād (961-1024/1553-54 to 1615-16).

  • ADAB AL-ṢAḠĪR

    I. Abbas

    an Arabic book of wisdom and advice, based on Middle Persian works.

  • ADAB NEWSPAPER

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    title of several Persian periodicals.

  • ʿADĀLAT

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    (“Justice”), name of several periodicals.

  • ADAM, GUILLAUME

    J. Richard

    14th-century traveler.

  • ĀDAMĪ

    A. Gorjī

    late 3rd/9th century Shiʿite traditionist.

  • ĀDAMĪYAT

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    (“Humanity”), name of two Iranian periodicals.

  • ĀDAR

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀDUR.

  • ĀḎAR

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀDUR.

  • ʿADAS

    A. Parsa and N. Ramazani, A. Parsa

    "lentils."

  • ADĀT

    Ḵ. Faršīdvard

    “particle,” Arabic word corresponding to the Persian abzār which is used as a technical term in logic (manṭeq), grammar (dastūr), and rhetoric (maʿānī o bayān).

  • ADDĀ

    W. Sundermann

    one of the earliest disciples of Mani.

  • ʿĀDEL SHAH AFŠĀR

    J. R. Perry

    the royal title of ʿAlī-qolī Khan, r. 1160-61/1747-48, nephew and successor of Nāder Shah.

  • ʿĀDELŠĀHĪS

    R. M. Eaton

    A dynasty of Indo-Muslim kings who governed the city-state of Bijapur from 895/1490 to 1097/1686.

  • ADERGOUDOUNBADES

    R. N. Frye

    kanārang (eastern border margrave) appointed by the Sasanian king Kavād (r. 488-531 A.D.).

  • ADHAM, MĪRZĀ EBRĀHĪM

    W. Thackston

    11th/17th century poet.

  • ADHYARDHAŚATIKĀ PRAJÑĀPĀRAMITĀ

    R. E. Emmerick

    (“The perfection of wisdom in 150 lines”), title of a Praǰñāpāramitā text in Tantric.

  • ADIABENE

    D. Sellwood

    a district near the present-day borders of Iraq, Iran, and Turkey.

  • ADIB ḴᵛĀNSARI

    Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi and EIr

    a major vocalist of Persia in the first half of 20th century (1901-1982).

  • ADĪB NAṬANZĪ

    ʿA. N. Monzawī

    poet and linguist of the 5th/11th century, from Naṭanz, near Isfahan.

  • ADĪB NĪŠĀBURĪ

    J. Matīnī

    Persian litterateur and poet (19th century).

  • ADĪB PĪŠĀVARĪ

    Munibur Rahman

    poetic name of SAYYED AḤMAD B. ŠEHĀB-AL-DĪN RAŻAWĪ (1844-1930).

  • ADĪB ṢĀBER

    Ḏ. Ṣafā

    famous poet of the first half of the 6th/12th century. 

  • ADĪB ṬĀLAQĀNĪ

    M. Momen

    prominent Iranian Bahaʾi author of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. 

  • ADĪB-AL-MAMĀLEK FARĀHĀNĪ

    Munibur Rahman

    poet and journalist (1860-1917).

  • ĀDĪNEVAND

    P. Oberling

    a small Lur tribe of Lorestān which lives the year round in the baḵš of Ṭarhān.

  • ʿADL, Aḥmad-Ḥosayn

    Bāqer ʿĀqeli

    minister of agriculture, Director General of the Plan Organization, and the first director of the College of Agronomy (1898-1963). He did much to advance industrial development in Isfahan, both holding cabinet positions in the government and contributing in the private sector.

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  • ʿADL, MOṢṬAFĀ

    Bāqer ʿĀqeli

    In 1945, as the head of the Iranian delegation in San Francisco, ʿAdl gave a persuasive lecture arguing for de-occupation of Iran and ayment of reparations for damage caused by the war. He attended the assembly of the United Nations, and struggled for the recognition of the rights of Iran and her territorial integrity.

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  • ʿADL-E MOẒAFFAR

    J. Calmard, L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    “Moẓaffar’s justice,” a phrase connected with the events of the Constitutional Revolution (1905-11) and the name of a newspaper.