Table of Contents

  • AČAṘEAN, HRAČʾEAY YAKOBI

    J. R. Russell

    Armenian linguist, born 8 March 1876 (O. S.; 20 March N. S.) at Constantinople. 

  • ACƎKZĪ

    C. M. Kieffer

    (ACAKZĪ, or AČƎKZĪ, AČAKẒĪ), a tribal grouping of Paṧtūn clans in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

  • ACHAEMENES

    M. A. Dandamayev

    (Greek Achaiménēs), Old Persian proper name Haxāmaniš, traditionally derived from haxā- “friend” and manah “thinking power.”

  • ACHAEMENID DYNASTY

    R. Schmitt

    Two principles of their election, dynastic and divine right, belong to contrasting areas and periods—respectively, to prehistoric nomad tribes of Indo-European origin and to the highly civilized Mesopotamian peoples. 

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  • ACHAEMENID RELIGION

    M. Boyce

    Greek writings establish with all reasonable clarity that the later Achaemenids were Zoroastrians; but the religion of the early kings has been much debated.

  • ACHAEMENID ROYAL COMMUNICATION

    Bruno Jacobs

    the spreading of every kind of information and decision-making needed for governmental control. Under this topic can be subsumed the royal agenda, political objectives, ideological and legitimizing strategies, and orders and messages to subordinates and the general population.

  • ACHAEMENID SATRAPIES

    Bruno Jacobs

    the administrative units of the Achaemenid empire.

  • ACHAEMENID TAXATION

    M. A. Dandamayev

     a most important component of the Achaemenid state administration.

  • ACHAEMENID VISUAL REPRESENTATIONS OF ROYAL FIGURES

    Erica Ehrenberg

    Visual representations of Achaemenid kings, while indebted to established Mesopotamian iconographic conventions, betray distinct understandings of sovereignty.

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  • ACHMA

    R. E. Emmerick

    (a Turkish word meaning “opening”), a town in the Domoko (Dumaqu) oasis near Khotan, so named with reference to the local springs.

  • ĀÇINA

    M. A. Dandamayev

    son of Upadarma, a rebel against Darius I.

  • ĀÇIYĀDIYA

    R. Schmitt

    (a-ç-i-y-a-di-i-y-), name of the ninth month (November-December) of the Old Persian calendar.

  • ACKERMAN, PHYLLIS

    Cornelia Montgomery

    (b. Oakland, California, 1893; d. Shiraz, 25 January 1977), author, editor, teacher and translator in the fields of Persian textiles, European tapestries, Chinese bronzes, iconography, and symbolism.

  • ACTA ARCHELAI

    Cross-Reference

    See ARCHELAUS.

  • ACTS OF ĀDUR-HORMIZD AND OF ANĀHĪD

    J. P. Asmussen

    Syriac martyrological texts.  Their events are set in the year 446 A.D., during the reign of Yazdegerd II; and they were apparently recorded not long afterward. They offer more detailed data on Zoroastrianism and Zurvanism, even though in a somewhat corrupted form, than is commonly found in the records of the Christian martyrs of the Sasanian empire. 

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  • ACTS OF THE PERSIAN MARTYRS

    A. Vööbus

    a collection of the acts of martyrdom under Šāpūr II (309-79 CE). The author states that the text is not a free composition for glorification of the martyrs, but rather rests on information he gathered from those close to the actual happenings—even eyewitnesses. 

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  • ĀDĀ

    J. Duchesne-Guillemin

    “requital” in Avestan.

  • ADAB

    Multiple Authors

    Term applied to a genre of literature as well as to refined and well-mannered conduct; in Persian it is often synonymous with farhang.

  • ADAB i. Adab in Iran

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    Apart from a genre of literature (see section ii), adab in Persian means education, culture, good behavior, politeness, proper demeanor; thus it is closely linked with the concept of ethics.

  • ADAB ii. Adab in Arabic Literature

    Ch. Pellat

    In modern Arabic usage the term adab (plur. ādāb) denotes “literature,” but in classical Islam it was applied only to a limited range of literary works.

  • ĀDĀB AL-ḤARB WA’L-ŠAJĀʿA

    C. E. Bosworth

    (“The correct usages of war and bravery”), a treatise in a straightforward Persian prose style in the “Mirror for Princes” genre, written by Faḵr-al-dīn Moḥammad b. Manṣūr Mobārakšāh, called Faḵr-e Modabber.

  • ADAB AL-KABĪR

    I. Abbas

    an Arabic work by Ebn al-Moqaffaʿ dealing largely with Persian manners and court etiquette.

  • ADAB AL-KĀTEB

    C. E. Bosworth

    (“Manual for secretaries”), a work composed by the celebrated Baghdad scholar probably of Khorasanian mawlā origin, Ebn Qotayba (213-76/828-89).

  • ĀDĀB AL-MAŠQ

    M. Dabīrsīāqī

    (“Manual of penmanship”), a short essay on writing the nastaʿlīq hand by the noted Safavid calligrapher Mīr ʿEmād (961-1024/1553-54 to 1615-16).

  • ADAB AL-ṢAḠĪR

    I. Abbas

    an Arabic book of wisdom and advice, based on Middle Persian works.

  • ADAB NEWSPAPER

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    title of several Persian periodicals.

  • ʿADĀLAT

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    (“Justice”), name of several periodicals.

  • ADAM, GUILLAUME

    J. Richard

    14th-century traveler.

  • ĀDAMĪ

    A. Gorjī

    late 3rd/9th century Shiʿite traditionist.

  • ĀDAMĪYAT

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    (“Humanity”), name of two Iranian periodicals.

  • ĀDAR

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀDUR.

  • ĀḎAR

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀDUR.

  • ʿADAS

    A. Parsa and N. Ramazani, A. Parsa

    "lentils."

  • ADĀT

    Ḵ. Faršīdvard

    “particle,” Arabic word corresponding to the Persian abzār which is used as a technical term in logic (manṭeq), grammar (dastūr), and rhetoric (maʿānī o bayān).

  • ADDĀ

    W. Sundermann

    one of the earliest disciples of Mani.

  • ʿĀDEL SHAH AFŠĀR

    J. R. Perry

    the royal title of ʿAlī-qolī Khan, r. 1160-61/1747-48, nephew and successor of Nāder Shah.

  • ʿĀDELŠĀHĪS

    R. M. Eaton

    A dynasty of Indo-Muslim kings who governed the city-state of Bijapur from 895/1490 to 1097/1686.

  • ADERGOUDOUNBADES

    R. N. Frye

    kanārang (eastern border margrave) appointed by the Sasanian king Kavād (r. 488-531 A.D.).

  • ADHAM, MĪRZĀ EBRĀHĪM

    W. Thackston

    11th/17th century poet.

  • ADHYARDHAŚATIKĀ PRAJÑĀPĀRAMITĀ

    R. E. Emmerick

    (“The perfection of wisdom in 150 lines”), title of a Praǰñāpāramitā text in Tantric.

  • ADIABENE

    D. Sellwood

    a district near the present-day borders of Iraq, Iran, and Turkey.

  • ADIB ḴᵛĀNSARI

    Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi and EIr

    a major vocalist of Persia in the first half of 20th century (1901-1982).

  • ADĪB NAṬANZĪ

    ʿA. N. Monzawī

    poet and linguist of the 5th/11th century, from Naṭanz, near Isfahan.

  • ADĪB NĪŠĀBURĪ

    J. Matīnī

    Persian litterateur and poet (19th century).

  • ADĪB PĪŠĀVARĪ

    Munibur Rahman

    poetic name of SAYYED AḤMAD B. ŠEHĀB-AL-DĪN RAŻAWĪ (1844-1930).

  • ADĪB ṢĀBER

    Ḏ. Ṣafā

    famous poet of the first half of the 6th/12th century. 

  • ADĪB ṬĀLAQĀNĪ

    M. Momen

    prominent Iranian Bahaʾi author of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. 

  • ADĪB-AL-MAMĀLEK FARĀHĀNĪ

    Munibur Rahman

    poet and journalist (1860-1917).

  • ĀDĪNEVAND

    P. Oberling

    a small Lur tribe of Lorestān which lives the year round in the baḵš of Ṭarhān.

  • ʿADL, Aḥmad-Ḥosayn

    Bāqer ʿĀqeli

    minister of agriculture, Director General of the Plan Organization, and the first director of the College of Agronomy (1898-1963). He did much to advance industrial development in Isfahan, both holding cabinet positions in the government and contributing in the private sector.

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