Table of Contents

  • AČAṘEAN, HRAČʾEAY YAKOBI

    J. R. Russell

    Armenian linguist, born 8 March 1876 (O. S.; 20 March N. S.) at Constantinople. 

  • ACƎKZĪ

    C. M. Kieffer

    (ACAKZĪ, or AČƎKZĪ, AČAKẒĪ), a tribal grouping of Paṧtūn clans in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

  • ACHAEMENES

    M. A. Dandamayev

    (Greek Achaiménēs), Old Persian proper name Haxāmaniš, traditionally derived from haxā- “friend” and manah “thinking power.”

  • ACHAEMENID DYNASTY

    R. Schmitt

    Two principles of their election, dynastic and divine right, belong to contrasting areas and periods—respectively, to prehistoric nomad tribes of Indo-European origin and to the highly civilized Mesopotamian peoples. Three constitutive elements thus enter into Achaemenid kingship and royal ideology: (a) Near Eastern heritage, (b) Indo-Iranian heritage, and (c) a Persian combination of these two.

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  • ACHAEMENID RELIGION

    M. Boyce

    Greek writings establish with all reasonable clarity that the later Achaemenids were Zoroastrians; but the religion of the early kings has been much debated.

  • ACHAEMENID SATRAPIES

    Bruno Jacobs

    the administrative units of the Achaemenid empire.

  • ACHAEMENID TAXATION

    M. A. Dandamayev

     a most important component of the Achaemenid state administration.

  • ACHMA

    R. E. Emmerick

    (a Turkish word meaning “opening”), a town in the Domoko (Dumaqu) oasis near Khotan, so named with reference to the local springs.

  • ĀÇINA

    M. A. Dandamayev

    son of Upadarma, a rebel against Darius I.

  • ĀÇIYĀDIYA

    R. Schmitt

    (a-ç-i-y-a-di-i-y-), name of the ninth month (November-December) of the Old Persian calendar.

  • ACKERMAN, PHYLLIS

    Cornelia Montgomery

    (b. Oakland, California, 1893; d. Shiraz, 25 January 1977), author, editor, teacher and translator in the fields of Persian textiles, European tapestries, Chinese bronzes, iconography, and symbolism.

  • ACTA ARCHELAI

    Cross-Reference

    See ARCHELAUS.

  • ACTS OF ĀDUR-HORMIZD AND OF ANĀHĪD

    J. P. Asmussen

    Syriac martyrological texts.  

  • ACTS OF THE PERSIAN MARTYRS

    A. Vööbus

    a collection of the acts of martyrdom under Šāpūr II (309-79 CE).

  • ĀDĀ

    J. Duchesne-Guillemin

    “requital” in Avestan.

  • ADAB

    Multiple Authors

    Term applied to a genre of literature as well as to refined and well-mannered conduct; in Persian it is often synonymous with farhang.

  • ADAB i. Adab in Iran

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    Apart from a genre of literature (see section ii), adab in Persian means education, culture, good behavior, politeness, proper demeanor; thus it is closely linked with the concept of ethics.

  • ADAB ii. Adab in Arabic Literature

    Ch. Pellat

    In modern Arabic usage the term adab (plur. ādāb) denotes “literature,” but in classical Islam it was applied only to a limited range of literary works.

  • ĀDĀB AL-ḤARB WA’L-ŠAJĀʿA

    C. E. Bosworth

    (“The correct usages of war and bravery”), a treatise in a straightforward Persian prose style in the “Mirror for Princes” genre, written by Faḵr-al-dīn Moḥammad b. Manṣūr Mobārakšāh, called Faḵr-e Modabber.

  • ADAB AL-KABĪR

    I. Abbas

    an Arabic work by Ebn al-Moqalia ž dealing largely with Persian manners and court etiquette.