Table of Contents

  • AČAṘEAN, HRAČʾEAY YAKOBI

    J. R. Russell

    Armenian linguist, born 8 March 1876 (O. S.; 20 March N. S.) at Constantinople. 

  • ACƎKZĪ

    C. M. Kieffer

    (ACAKZĪ, or AČƎKZĪ, AČAKẒĪ), a tribal grouping of Paṧtūn clans in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

  • ACHAEMENES

    M. A. Dandamayev

    (Greek Achaiménēs), Old Persian proper name Haxāmaniš, traditionally derived from haxā- “friend” and manah “thinking power.”

  • ACHAEMENID DYNASTY

    R. Schmitt

    Two principles of their election, dynastic and divine right, belong to contrasting areas and periods—respectively, to prehistoric nomad tribes of Indo-European origin and to the highly civilized Mesopotamian peoples. Three constitutive elements thus enter into Achaemenid kingship and royal ideology: (a) Near Eastern heritage, (b) Indo-Iranian heritage, and (c) a Persian combination of these two.

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  • ACHAEMENID RELIGION

    M. Boyce

    Greek writings establish with all reasonable clarity that the later Achaemenids were Zoroastrians; but the religion of the early kings has been much debated.

  • ACHAEMENID SATRAPIES

    Bruno Jacobs

    the administrative units of the Achaemenid empire.

  • ACHAEMENID TAXATION

    M. A. Dandamayev

     a most important component of the Achaemenid state administration.

  • ACHMA

    R. E. Emmerick

    (a Turkish word meaning “opening”), a town in the Domoko (Dumaqu) oasis near Khotan, so named with reference to the local springs.

  • ĀÇINA

    M. A. Dandamayev

    son of Upadarma, a rebel against Darius I.

  • ĀÇIYĀDIYA

    R. Schmitt

    (a-ç-i-y-a-di-i-y-), name of the ninth month (November-December) of the Old Persian calendar.