Table of Contents

  • ABU’L-ḴAYR KHAN

    Y. Bregel

    A descendant of Šïban (the younger son of Joči) and ruler of the Uzbek nomadic state in Dašt-e Qïpčaq in the 15th century.

  • ABU'L-KHAYRIDS

    Yuri Bregel

    name used for the dynasty that ruled the khanate of Bukhara in 906-1007/1500-99. Until recently, this dynasty was incorrectly called in Western literature “Shaybanids” (or “Shibanids”).

  • ABU’L-LAYṮ SAMARQANDĪ

    J. van Ess

    productive Hanafite jurist, author of a Koran commentary and of popular paraenetical works.

  • ABU’L-MAʿĀLĪ

    J. van Ess

    Author of Bayān al-adyān, the oldest work on religions and sects written in Persian (11th-12th centuries).

  • ABU’L-MAʿṢŪM MĪRZĀ

    D. Duda

    Safavid painter, portraitist, draftsman, engraver, and expert in artistic bookbinding and restoring who was extolled by the historian Qāżī Aḥmad (16th century).

  • ABU’L-MAṮAL BOḴĀRĪ

    J. W. Clinton

    (or BOḴĀRĀʾĪ), a poet of the Samanid court.

  • ABU’L-MOʾAYYAD BALḴĪ

    G. Lazard

    An early Persian poet and writer of the Samanid period, whose works have almost entirely disappeared.

  • ABU’L-MOẒAFFAR ḴᵛĀFĪ

    H. Halm

    Shafeʿite jurist and traditionist (d. in Ṭūs in 500/1106) . He was one of the most important students of Emām-al-ḥaramayn Jovaynī.

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿABDALLĀH KĀŠĀNĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    Historian of the reign of the Il-khan Olǰāytū and member of the Abū Ṭāher family of potters (14th century). 

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿALĪ B. ḤASAN

    C. E. Bosworth

    Vizier to the atabeg of Lorestān Šams-al-dawla Ḡāzī Beg Aydoḡmuš (7th/13th century).

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿALĪ B. MOḤAMMAD

    R. W. Bulliet

    A wealthy dehqān from Sabzavār who was prominent as a founder of madrasas in the second decade of the 5th/11th century.

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM EBRĀHĪM ḤAṢĪRĪ

    Cross-Reference

    Shafeʿite faqīh (jurist) and Ghaznavid official, d. 424/1033. See ABŪ BAKR ḤAṢĪRĪ.

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM EBRĀHĪM SOLṬĀN

    EIr

    The only son of Kāmrān Mīrza, brother and rival of the Mughal emperor Homāyūn (r. 937-47, 962-63/1530-40, 1555-56).

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM ESḤĀQ SAMARQANDI

    W. Madelung

    Hanafite scholar, Sufi, and judge (qāżī) of Samarqand (9th-10th centuries).

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM HĀRŪN

    K. A. Luther

    Vizier of Atabeg Ozbek b. Moḥammad b. Eldagōz, ruler of Azerbaijan, 607-22/1210-25.

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM KAʿBĪ

    J. van Ess

    Administrator and intellectual of Persian descent, Hanafite jurist and foremost representative of the Moʿtazela in Khorasan (d. Šaʿbān, 319/February, 931).

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM KERMĀNĪ

    D. Pingree

    Author of a Ketāb fī oṣūl al-aḥkām (“Book concerning the foundations of astrological judgments”).

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM KHAN EBRĀHĪMĪ

    D. MacEoin

    Fourth head of the Kermānī branch of the Šayḵī school of Shiʿism (19th-20th centuries).

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM KŪFĪ

    L. Giffen

    Scholar of philosophy, theology, and other disciplines who was at first an Emāmī Shiʿite but later embraced a form of extreme Shiʿism (d. near Šīrāz, 352/962).

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM MOḤAMMAD ASLAM

    S. Moinul Haq

    (pen name MONʿEMĪ), 18th-century historian of Kashmir.

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM NĀʾĪNĪ

    L. Richter-Bernburg

    Major representative (practitioner, instructor, author) of traditional medicine in late Qajar Persia (1245-1322/1829-30 to 1904-05).

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM SAʿĪD

    D. Duda

    ABU’L-QASEM SAID's name is preserved in the colophon of a Koran manuscript written in early nasḵī script. In the colophon the scribe calls himself the son or grandson of a pupil of Jawharī. That famous Arab lexicographer (originally from Turkestan) after extensive travels, settled in Nīšāpūr to teach, copy books, and pursue a literary career.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ABU’L-QĀSEM SOLṬĀN

    M. H. Pathan

    Bēglār chief of Sind, b. at Nasarpur, Sind, in 969/1562.

  • ABU’L-RAYḤĀN BĪRŪNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    Scholar and polymath of the period of the late Samanids and early Ghaznavids and one of the two greatest intellectual figures of his time in the eastern lands of the Muslim world (362/973-after 442/1050). See BĪRŪNĪ, ABU’L-RAYḤĀN.

  • ABU’L-RAYYĀN EṢFAHĀNĪ

    C. Cahen

    Buyid vizier (10th century).

  • ABU’L-ŠAYḴ EṢFAHĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    Traditionist and Koran commentator, important principally for his Ṭabaqāt al-moḥaddeṯī (274-369/887-979). See EṢFAHĀNĪ, ABU’L-ŠAYḴ.

  • ABU’L-TAYYEB ṬABARĪ

    J. Wakin

    Jurisconsult, judge (qāżī), and professor of legal sciences; he was regarded by his contemporaries as one of the leading Shafeʿites of 5th/11th century Baghdad.

  • ABU’L-ṬAYYEB ṬĀHER

    M. Forstner

    founder of the Taherid dynasty of Khorasan; born 139/775-76 in Pūšang (Būšang), died 207/822 in Marv.

  • ABU’L-WAFĀ B. SAʿID

    D. Pingree

    Author in Persian (15th century).

  • ABU’L-WAFĀ BŪZJĀNI

    D. Pingree

    Mathematician and astronomer (10th-11th century).

  • ABU’L-WAFĀʾ ḴᵛĀRAZMĪ

    H. Landolt

    Famous Sufi of Kobrawī affiliation, esoterist, scholar, poet, and musician (d. 835/1431-32).

  • ABU’L-WAFĀʾ ŠĪRĀZĪ

    H. Algar

    Sufi of Shiraz, morīd of the well-known preacher, mystic and writer, Shah Dāʿī Elā Allāh Šīrāzī (fl. 10th/16th century).

  • ABU’L-WAZIR MARVAZĪ

    L. A. Giffen

    Secretary and author (d. 186/802).

  • ABU’L-YANBAḠĪ

    Y. Richard

    Iranian poet (d. 230/844).

  • ABYĀNA

    E. Yarshater

    From a number of lingering old customs and practices it appears that the total conversion of Abyāna from Zoroastrianism to Islam took place relatively late. The inhabitants exhibit with pride an awareness of the ancient customs of the village.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ABYĀNAʾĪ

    E. Yarshater

    Dialect spoken in the village of Abyāna, one of a number of closely similar dialects spoken in the villages of Kāšān and its neighboring districts, all belonging to the Central Dialects of Iran (or Southern Median).

  • ĀBYĀR

    E. Ehlers

    Title of the person given official charge of the irrigation of ābī “irrigated” lands.

  • ĀBYĀRĪ

    B. Spooner

    Persian term meaning "irrigation." Although dry farming is important in Azerbaijan, Kurdistan, and Khorasan, as well as some other districts, a large proportion of Iran’s agriculture has always depended upon irrigation. This article concentrates on the preindustrial forms that not only have been important in the evolution of Iranian culture and civilization but have constituted an important Iranian contribution to the development of water management systems in other parts of the world.

  • ABZARĪ, ḴᵛĀJA ʿAMĪD-AL-DĪN

    A. E. Khairallah

    Poet and the vizier of the Salghurid Atabeg of Fārs Saʿd b. Zangī (594-623/1197-1226).

  • ABZŌN

    M. F. Kanga

    Middle Persian term meaning “prosperity, increase” in Zoroastrianism.

  • Ab~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the Ab entries