Table of Contents

  • ʿABBĀS II

    Rudi Matthee

    Safavid king of Iran (1052-77/1642-66).  The expedition to Kandahar, which had been lost to the Mughals under Shah Ṣafi I, counts as Shah ʿAbbās II’s main military venture.

  • ʿABBĀS III

    R. M. Savory

    son of Shah Ṭahmāsp II, roi fainéant of the Safavid dynasty (1732-40).

  • ʿABBĀS MĪRZĀ QAJAR

    H. Busse

    son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah and father of the line of Qajar rulers from Moḥammad Shah on (1789-1833).

  • ʿABBĀS, ḤĀJĪ

    J. W. Allan

    Signature found on a number of pieces of metalwork from Iran.

  • ʿABBĀS-QOLĪ KHAN

    D. M. Lang

    persian viceroy in eastern Georgia (1099-1105/1688-94), under the Safavid shahs Solaymān and Solṭān Ḥosayn.

  • ʿABBĀS-QOLĪ MĪRZĀ QAJAR

    H. Busse

    a grandson of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Qajar (d. 1824 or 1825).

  • ʿABBĀSĀBĀD

    Kamran Ekbal

    Fortress built in 1810 by ʿAbbās Mīrzā on the northern bank of the Araxes river; it commanded the passage of the Araxes and was of special strategic importance for the defense of the Naḵjavān khanate.

  • ʿABBĀSĀBĀD Caravan Station

    W. Kleiss

    Flourishing caravan station of the Safavid period.

  • ʿABBĀSĪ

    P. Avery, B. G. Fragner, J. B. Simmons

    A name first applied to the principal gold and silver coins issued by the Safavid king ʿAbbās I (1581-1629); it continued in use until the beginning of the 20th century.

  • ʿABBĀSĪ GOJARĀTĪ

    Y. Richard

    Indian literary figure who wrote in Persian (d. 1048/1638).

  • ʿABBĀSĪ RABENJANĪ

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    10th century Samanid poet.

  • ʿABBĀSĪ, ŠAYḴ

    R. Skelton

    Apart from an apparently early work in the standard Isfahan style of the second quarter of the 17th century (Cristie’s 10 July 1975, lot 197), Šayḵ ʿAbbāsī departed from the established conventions of Safavid painting and embarked upon an eclectic manner in which European and Indian elements played an important role.

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  • ʿABBASID CALIPHATE

    C. E. Bosworth

    the third dynasty of caliphs who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphs in Damascus.

  • ABD, ABDĪH

    Cross-Reference

    “marvel, wonder” in Middle Persian. See  MIRACLES i. In Ancient Iranian Tradition.

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿALĪ BAḤR-AL-ʿOLŪM

    F. Robinson

    A leading Indian theologian of the Ḥanafī school (18th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿALĪ BĪRJANDĪ

    D. Pingree

    (or BARJANDĪ) Islamic astronomer, said to have died in 934/1527-28.

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿALĪM NAṢRALLĀḤ KHAN

    Hameed ud-Din

    “QAMAR,” government official, historian, biographer, translator, and grammarian in British India (19th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿAẒĪM AL-ḤASANĪ

    W. Madelung

    Shiʿite ascetic and transmitter buried in the main sanctuary of Ray (9th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿAZĪZ B. ʿABD-AL-VAHHĀB

    D. Duda

    painter of the Safavid period employed in the royal workshops of Tabriz who lost his nose under mysterious and debated circumstances. According to the historian Qāẓī Aḥmad, both father and son were excellent painters from Kāšān.

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  • ʿABD-AL-ʿAZĪZ B. NAḎR MOḤAMMAD

    M. H. Siddiqi

    Toghay-Timurid (Janid) dynast of the Uzbeks in Bukhara (r. 1647-80).

  • ʿABD-al-ʿAZĪZ ḤEKĪMBĀŠĪ

    T. Yazici

    Ottoman physician and translator (d. 1782-83).

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿAZĪZ MOḤADDEṮ DEHLAVĪ

    Azduddin Khan

    Sunni theologian and mystic (1746-1824).

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿAZĪZ QARA ČELEBIZĀDA

    T. Yazici

    Ottoman historian and translator (1591-1658).

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿAZĪZ SOLṬĀN

    Yu. Bregel

    Shaibanid ruler of Bokhara (d. 1550).

  • ʿABD-AL-BAHĀʾ

    A. Bausani, D. MacEoin

    epithet assumed by ʿAbbās Effendi, the eldest son of Bahāʾallāh, founder of the Bahaʾi movement. The epithet means “servant of the glory of God” or “servant of Bahāʾallāh.”

  • ʿABD-AL-BĀQĪ LAʿLĪZĀDA

    T. Yazici

    (d. 1746 A.D.), Ottoman scholar, son of Shaikh Laʿlī Meḥmed, the grandson of Sarı ʿAbdallāh, a commentator on the Maṯnavī

  • ʿABD-AL-BĀQĪ NAHĀVANDĪ

    Hameed ud-Din

    Mughal noble and biographer.

  • ʿABD-AL-BĀQĪ TABRĪZĪ

    ʿAbd-al-ʿAlī Kārang

    religious scholar and notable of Azerbaijan (d. 1039/1629-30).

  • ʿABD-AL-BĀQĪ YAZDĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    Safavid official and poet skilled in calligraphy, killed at the battle of Čālderān in Raǰab 920/August 1514.

  • ʿABD-AL-BARĪ

    F. Robinson

    early 20th century Indian scholar and pīr of the Ferangī Maḥal family.

  • ʿABD-AL-FATTĀḤ GARMRŪDĪ

    H. Algar

    (ca. 1200-64/1786-1848), a scribe and minor author of the mid-Qajar period.

  • ʿABD-AL-FATTĀH ḤOSAYNĪ

    M. B. Badakhshani

    Indian scholar of Persian and Arabic.

  • ʿABD-AL-ḠANĪ KHAN

    M. Baqir

    Indian literary scholar and a poet in Persian and Urdu (d. 1916).

  • ʿABD-AL-HĀDĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ

    H. Algar

    (1305-82/1888-1962), a Shiʿite scholar of Naǰaf, highly regarded for his learning and piety.

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. ABUʾL-ḤADĪD

    W. Madelung

    Muʿtazilite scholar and man of letters (13th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. AḤMAD

    C. E. Bosworth

    vizier of the Ghaznavids in the late 5th/11th to early 6th/12th century. He is described as serving Sultan Ebrāhīm b. Masʿūd (451-92/1059-99).

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMID b. AḤMAD b. ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD ŠIRĀZI

    C. E. Bosworth

    long-serving vizier to the Ghaznavid sultans Ebrāhim b. Masʿud (r. 451-92/1059-99) and his son Masʿud III (r. 492-508/1199-1215).

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. ʿĪSĀ

    G. C. Anawati

    physician, theologian, philosopher, and jurist (580-652/1184-1254).

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. VĀSEʿ

    D. Pingree

    mathematician, often referred to as Ebn Tork, who apparently flourished at the beginning of the 2nd/9th century.

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. YAḤYĀ

    W. N. Brinner

    an important figure in the development of Arabic epistolary style, especially in the stablishment of chancery style during the Umayyad period (d. 132/750).

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD LĀHŪRĪ

    R. M. Eaton

    17th-century Indo-Persian historian and author of the Pādšāh-nāma, the official account of the reign of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahān (1037-67/1628-57).

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD MALEK-AL-KALĀMĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    calligrapher, poet, and government official (d. 1949).

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAQQ DEHLAVĪ

    N. H. Zaidi

    noted Mughal traditionist, historian, essayist, and biographer of saints (16th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAYY AWRANGĀBĀDĪ

    M. Baqir

    administrator, poet, and biographer (1729-82).

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAYY, ABŪ’L-ḤASANĀT

    F. Robinson

    (1264-1304/1848-86), Indian theologian from the distinguished Farangī Maḥall family.

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAYY, ḴᵛĀJĀ

    P. P. Soucek

    miniaturist (late 8th/14th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR

    D. Duda

    calligrapher at the Safavid court in Isfahan in the time of Shah ʿAbbās I (17th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR ASTARĀBĀDĪ

    D. Duda

    calligrapher of the taʿlīq script and bookpainter. 

  • ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR AZDĪ

    D. M. Dunlop

    Governor of Khorasan, executed in 142/759.

  • ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR B. AḤMAD

    W. Madelung

    prominent theologian of the late Muʿtazilite school (10th century).