Table of Contents

  • ĀB

    Multiple Authors

    Persian word meaning “water.”

  • ĀB i. The concept of water in ancient Iranian culture

    Mary Boyce

    The ancient Iranians respected water as the source of life, which nourished plants, animals, and men. In their cosmology water was the second of the seven “creations.”

  • ĀB ii. Water in Muslim Iranian culture

    I. K. Poonawala

    Water constitutes an essential element in Islamic ritual, as a means of purification, and serves as a common theme in folklore. 

  • ĀB iii. The hydrology and water resources of the Iranian plateau

    P. Beaumont

    Over the most of the central part of the plateau, in the Dašt-e Kavīr and Dašt-e Lūt, annual precipitation averages less than 100 mm, making these among the most arid parts of the world.

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  • ĀB-ANBĀR

    R. Holod, M. Sotūda

    "Water reservoir,” a term commonly used throughout Iran as a designation for roofed underground water cisterns.

  • ĀB-ANBĀR i. History

    R. Holod

    The āb-anbār was one of the constructions developed in Iran as part of a water management system in areas reliant on permanent (springs, qanāts) or on seasonal (rain) water. A settlement’s capacity for storing water ensured its survival over the hot, dry season when even the permanent water supply would diminish.

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  • AB-ANBĀR ii. Construction

    M. Sotūda

    Cisterns are built in towns and villages throughout Iran, as well as at crossroads, caravanseries, and hospices (rebāṭ). While town cisterns may be filled with rain water or from qanāts, most āb-anbārs along caravan routes are filled from the spring torrents of nearby streams.

  • ĀB-E DEZ

    H. Gaube

    a major river of Ḵūzestān and the one most vital to its economy. It rises in the central Zagros mountains about 20 km northeast of Borūǰerd near the village of Čahār Borra.

  • ĀB-E GARM

    E. Ehlers

    There is a special kind of spring, the karst spring, in areas which have no consistent water table. The water usually collects in great clefts within chalky formations or flows in a subterranean channel and often includes the best-known springs in Iran.

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  • ĀB-E ḤAYĀT

    Cross-Reference

    Āb-e Ḥayāt, also called ʿAyn al-Ḥayāt or Nahr al-Ḥayāt, meaning the fountain of life, is associated with Ḵeżr, who is identified with the unnamed companion of Moses in the Koran (18:65-82). See ĀB ii. Water in Muslim Iranian culture.

  • ĀB-E ĪSTĀDA

    C. E. Bosworth

    “Still water,” a salt lake in the province of Ḡazna in modern Afghanistan, lying 30 km southeast of the present Ḡazna-Kandahār highway and 100 km south of Ḡazna itself.

  • ĀB-ḠŪRA

    N. Ramazani

    (or ĀB-E ḠŪRA), the juice of unripe grapes, used in Persian cuisine.

  • ĀB-GŪŠT

    EIr and N. Ramazani

    “Meat juice,” a popular Persian meat-based soup or stew, consisting of lamb, some legume, and herb and seasoning.

  • ĀB-NĀHĪD

    Mary Boyce

     “Nāhid of the Water,” a Zoroastrian woman’s name, first attested in the poem Vis o Rāmīn.

  • ĀB-ZŌHR

    Mary Boyce

    “Offering of water,” the Middle Persian form of a Zoroastrian technical term, Av. Ape zaoθra. Making the offering of water is the culminating rite of the main Zoroastrian act of worship, the yasna; and preparing and consecrating it is at the center of the rituals of the second part of this service.

  • ʿABĀʾ

    H. Algar

    (in Arabic, also ʿabāʾa and ʿabāya), a loose outer garment, generally for men, worn widely throughout the Middle East, particularly by Arab nomads. 

  • ABAD

    Joseph van Ess

    “Eternity a parte post,” Arabic theological term meaning “eternity a parte post” (already in early Muʿtazilite theology); it corresponds to Greek atéleuton. It sometimes also serves as a general term for unlimited time (dahr).

  • ĀBĀDA

    C. E. Bosworth

    Name of (1) a small town in northern Fārs province, and (2) a medieval town near the northern shore of Lake Baḵtegān in Fārs.

  • ĀBĀDĀN

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton, X. de Planhol

    Dates form the island’s primary crop and long constituted its chief source of in­come; extensive groves line the island’s shore.

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  • ĀBĀDĪ

    Ahmad Ashraf

    “Settlement, inhabited space,” Persian term usally applied to the rural environment; in colloquial usage it often refers to towns and cities as well.

  • ABĀLIŠ

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    Zoroastrian of the 9th century A.D. who apostatized to Islam.

  • ĀBĀN

    Mary Boyce

    Middle Persian term meaning “the waters” (Av. āpō). In Indo-Iranian the word for water is grammatically feminine; the element itself was always characterized as female and was represented by a group of goddesses, the Āpas.

  • ABĀN B. ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD

    I. Abbas

    late 2nd/8th century poet. He was of a Persian family, originally from Fasā, which had settled (probably at an early date) in Baṣra.

  • ĀBĀN MĀH

    Mary Boyce

    The eighth month of the Zoroastrian year, dedicated to the waters, Ābān.

  • ĀBĀN YAŠT

    Mary Boyce

    Middle Persian name of the fifth hymn among the Zoroastrian hymns to individual divinities. It is the third longest, with 131 verses.

  • ĀBĀNAGĀN

    Cross-Reference

    the name used by Bīrūnī (Āṯār, p. 224) for the Zoroastrian feast-day dedicated to the Waters, which was celebrated on the day Ābān of the month Ābān. See further under ĀBĀN MĀH.

  • ĀBĀNDOḴT

    W. L. Hanaway, Jr.

    Character in the prose romance Dārāb-nāma of Abū Ṭāher Moḥammad b. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Mūsā al-Ṭarsūsī, a storyteller of the Ghaznavid period.

  • ABAQA

    Peter Jackson

    (or ABAḠA, “paternal uncle” in Mongolian; ABĀQĀ in Persian and Arabic), eldest son and first successor of the Il-khan Hülegü.

  • ʿABAQĀT AL-ANWĀR

    ʿA.-N. Monzavi

    A large Arabic work by Mīr Ḥāmed Ḥosayn b. Moḥammad-qolī b. Moḥammad b. Ḥāmed of Lucknow on the legitimacy of the imamate and the defense of Shiʿite theology.

  • ABAR NAHARA

    Cross-Reference

    Aramaic name for the lands to the west of the Euphrates—i.e., Phoenicia, Syria, and Palestine (Parpola, p. 116; Zadok, p. 129; see ASSYRIA ii). These regions apparently passed from Neo-Babylonian to Persian control in 539 B.C.E. when Cyrus the Great conquered Mesopotamia. See EBER-NĀRĪ.

  • ABARKĀVĀN

    M. Kasheff

    Late Sasanian name of Qešm island in the Straits of Hormoz.

  • ABARQOBĀḎ

    C. E. Bosworth

    Ancient town of lower Iraq between Baṣra and Vāseṭ, to the east of the Tigris, in the region adjacent to Ahvāz, known in pre-Islamic and early Islamic times as Mēšūn (Mid. Pers. form) or Maysān/Mayšān (Syriac and Arabic forms).

  • ABARQUH

    Multiple Authors

    (or ABARQŪYA), a town in northern Fārs; it was important in medieval times, but, being off the main routes, it is now largely decayed.

  • ABARQUH i. History

    C. E. Bosworth

    In present-day Iran, Abarqūh is situated in the tenth ostān, that of Isfahan, and forms a baḵš or district of the šahrestān of Yazd.

  • ABARQUH ii. Monuments

    R. Hillenbrand

    Numerous pre-Safavid monuments survive in Abarqūh, but the lack of important later buildings suggests a sharp decline in the city’s wealth.

  • ABARŠAHR

    H. Gaube

    Name of Nīšāpūr province in western Khorasan. From the early Sasanian period, Nišāpur, which was founded or rebuilt by Šāpur I in the first years of his reign, was the administrative center of the province.

  • ABARSĀM

    E. Yarshater

    (APURSĀM in Middle Persian), a dignitary and high-ranking officeholder of the court of the Sasanian king Ardašīr I (A.D. 226-42).

  • ABARSĒN

    C. J. Brunner

    Middle Persian form of the Avestan name Upāiri.saēna, designating the Hindu Kush mountains (Av. iškata; Mid. Pers. kōf, gar) of central and eastern Afghanistan.

  • ABASKŪN

    C. E. Bosworth

    (ĀBASKŪN), a port of the medieval period on the southwest shore of the Caspian Sea in Gorgān province.

  • ABBĀ ISAIAH

    N. Sims-Williams

    (i.e., “Father” Isaiah), late 4th century A.D., author of Christian ascetical texts; from these it appears that he was a hermit who lived in the desert of Scete in Egypt, of whom several anecdotes are told in the Apophthegmata patrum.

  • ʿABBĀD B. SALMĀN

    W. Madelung

    (or SOLAYMĀN), Muʿtazilite theologian of the 3rd/9th century.

  • ʿABBĀS (I)

    R. M. Savory

    Shah Abbas, Safavid king of Iran (996-1038/1588-1629). Styled "Shah ʿAbbās the Great," he was the third son and successor of Solṭān Moḥammad Shah.

  • ʿABBĀS (II)

    Rudi Matthee

    Safavid king of Iran (1052-77/1642-66).  The expedition to Kandahar, which had been lost to the Mughals under Shah Ṣafi I, counts as Shah ʿAbbās II’s main military venture.

  • ʿABBĀS (III)

    R. M. Savory

    Son of Shah Ṭahmāsp II, roi fainéant of the Safavid dynasty (1732-40).

  • ʿABBĀS AḤVAL

    D. M. Dunlop

    Leader of an Arab invasion of the lower Euphrates region in which the Savād of Iraq was ravaged, in about A.D. 589, toward the end of the reign of Hormozd IV.

  • ʿABBĀS B. ʿALĪ B. ABŪ ṬĀLEB

    J. Calmard

    Half brother of Imam Ḥosayn, who fought bravely at the battle of Karbalā. According to most traditions, he was killed on the day of ʿĀšurā (10 Moḥarram 61/10 October 680) while trying to bring back water from the Euphrates river to quench the unbearable thirst of the besieged Ahl-e Bayt (holy family).

  • ʿABBĀS B. ḤOSAYN

    C. Cahen

    Buyid vizier, d. 362/973.

  • ʿABBĀS B. REŻĀ-QOLĪ KHAN NŪRĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    Calligrapher and civil servant, d. 1255/1839-40.

  • ʿABBĀS EFFENDI

    Cross-Reference

    The eldest son of Bahāʾallāh and founder of the Bahaʾi movement. See ʿABD-AL-BAHĀʾ.

  • ʿABBĀS MĪRZĀ QAJAR

    H. Busse

    Son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah and father of the line of Qajar rulers from Moḥammad Shah on (1789-1833).

  • ʿABBĀS, ḤĀJĪ

    J. W. Allan

    Signature found on a number of pieces of metalwork from Iran.

  • ʿABBĀS-QOLĪ KHAN

    D. M. Lang

    Persian viceroy in eastern Georgia (1099-1105/1688-94), under the Safavid shahs Solaymān and Solṭān Ḥosayn.

  • ʿABBĀS-QOLĪ MĪRZĀ QAJAR

    H. Busse

    A grandson of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Qajar (d. 1824 or 1825).

  • ʿABBĀSĀBĀD

    Kamran Ekbal

    fortress built in 1810 by ʿAbbās Mīrzā on the northern bank of the Araxes river; it commanded the passage of the Araxes and was of special strategic importance for the defense of the Naḵjavān khanate.

  • ʿABBĀSĀBĀD Caravan Station

    W. Kleiss

    Flourishing caravan station of the Safavid period.

  • ʿABBĀSĪ

    P. Avery, B. G. Fragner, J. B. Simmons

    A name first applied to the principal gold and silver coins issued by the Safavid king ʿAbbās I (1581-1629); it continued in use until the beginning of the 20th century.

  • ʿABBĀSĪ GOJARĀTĪ

    Y. Richard

    Indian literary figure who wrote in Persian (d. 1048/1638).

  • ʿABBĀSĪ RABENJANĪ

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    10th century Samanid poet.

  • ʿABBĀSĪ, ŠAYḴ

    R. Skelton

    Apart from an apparently early work in the standard Isfahan style of the second quarter of the 17th century (Cristie’s 10 July 1975, lot 197), Šayḵ ʿAbbāsī departed from the established conventions of Safavid painting and embarked upon an eclectic manner in which European and Indian elements played an important role.

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  • ABBASID CALIPHATE

    C. E. Bosworth

    the third dynasty of caliphs who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphs in Damascus.

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿALĪ BAḤR-AL-ʿOLŪM

    F. Robinson

    A leading Indian theologian of the Ḥanafī school (18th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿALĪ BĪRJANDĪ

    D. Pingree

    (or BARJANDĪ) Islamic astronomer, said to have died in 934/1527-28.

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿALĪM NAṢRALLĀḤ KHAN

    Hameed ud-Din

    “QAMAR,” government official, historian, biographer, translator, and grammarian in British India (19th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿAẒĪM AL-ḤASANĪ

    W. Madelung

    Shiʿite ascetic and transmitter buried in the main sanctuary of Ray (9th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿAZĪZ B. ʿABD-AL-VAHHĀB

    D. Duda

    ABD-AL-AZIZ B. ABD-AL-VAHHAB owed his artistic training to Shah Ṭahmāsp and was employed in the royal workshops at Tabrīz, but had his ears and nose cut off for counterfeiting a seal. However, Moṣṭafā-ʿAlī says that he was born in Isfahan, that Shah Ṭahmāsp was his pupil, and that he lost his nose for attempting to flee to India with another painter and a page.

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  • ʿABD-AL-ʿAZĪZ B. NAḎR MOḤAMMAD

    M. H. Siddiqi

    Toghay-Timurid (Janid) dynast of the Uzbeks in Bukhara (r. 1647-80).

  • ʿABD-al-ʿAZĪZ ḤEKĪMBĀŠĪ

    T. Yazici

    Ottoman physician and translator (d. 1782-83).

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿAZĪZ MOḤADDEṮ DEHLAVĪ

    Azduddin Khan

    Sunni theologian and mystic (1746-1824).

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿAZĪZ QARA ČELEBIZĀDA

    T. Yazici

    Ottoman historian and translator (1591-1658).

  • ʿABD-AL-ʿAZĪZ SOLṬĀN

    Yu. Bregel

    Shaibanid ruler of Bokhara (d. 1550).

  • ʿABD-AL-BAHĀʾ

    A. Bausani, D. MacEoin

    epithet assumed by ʿAbbās Effendi, the eldest son of Bahāʾallāh, founder of the Bahaʾi movement. The epithet means “servant of the glory of God” or “servant of Bahāʾallāh.”

  • ʿABD-AL-BĀQĪ LAʿLĪZĀDA

    T. Yazici

    (d. 1746 A.D.), Ottoman scholar, son of Shaikh Laʿlī Meḥmed, the grandson of Sarı ʿAbdallāh, a commentator on the Maṯnavī

  • ʿABD-AL-BĀQĪ NAHĀVANDĪ

    Hameed ud-Din

    Mughal noble and biographer.

  • ʿABD-AL-BĀQĪ TABRĪZĪ

    ʿAbd-al-ʿAlī Kārang

    religious scholar and notable of Azerbaijan (d. 1039/1629-30).

  • ʿABD-AL-BĀQĪ YAZDĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    Safavid official and poet skilled in calligraphy, killed at the battle of Čālderān in Raǰab 920/August 1514.

  • ʿABD-AL-BARĪ

    F. Robinson

    early 20th century Indian scholar and pīr of the Ferangī Maḥal family.

  • ʿABD-AL-FATTĀḤ GARMRŪDĪ

    H. Algar

    (ca. 1200-64/1786-1848), a scribe and minor author of the mid-Qajar period.

  • ʿABD-AL-FATTĀH ḤOSAYNĪ

    M. B. Badakhshani

    Indian scholar of Persian and Arabic.

  • ʿABD-AL-ḠANĪ KHAN

    M. Baqir

    Indian literary scholar and a poet in Persian and Urdu (d. 1916).

  • ʿABD-AL-HĀDĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ

    H. Algar

    (1305-82/1888-1962), a Shiʿite scholar of Naǰaf, highly regarded for his learning and piety.

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. ABUʾL-ḤADĪD

    W. Madelung

    Muʿtazilite scholar and man of letters (13th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. AḤMAD

    C. E. Bosworth

    Vizier of the Ghaznavids in the late 5th/11th to early 6th/12th century. He is described as serving Sultan Ebrāhīm b. Masʿūd (451-92/1059-99).

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMID b. AḤMAD b. ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD ŠIRĀZI

    C. E. Bosworth

    long-serving vizier to the Ghaznavid sultans Ebrāhim b. Masʿud (r. 451-92/1059-99) and his son Masʿud III (r. 492-508/1199-1215).

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. ʿĪSĀ

    G. C. Anawati

    Physician, theologian, philosopher, and jurist (580-652/1184-1254).

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. VĀSEʿ

    D. Pingree

    Mathematician, often referred to as Ebn Tork, who apparently flourished at the beginning of the 2nd/9th century.

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. YAḤYĀ

    W. N. Brinner

    An important figure in the development of Arabic epistolary style, especially in the stablishment of chancery style during the Umayyad period (d. 132/750).

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD LĀHŪRĪ

    R. M. Eaton

    17th-century Indo-Persian historian and author of the Pādšāh-nāma, the official account of the reign of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahān (1037-67/1628-57).

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD MALEK-AL-KALĀMĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    Calligrapher, poet, and government official (d. 1949).

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAQQ DEHLAVĪ

    N. H. Zaidi

    Noted Mughal traditionist, historian, essayist, and biographer of saints (16th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAYY AWRANGĀBĀDĪ

    M. Baqir

    administrator, poet, and biographer (1729-82).

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAYY, ABŪ’L-ḤASANĀT

    F. Robinson

    (1264-1304/1848-86), Indian theologian from the distinguished Farangī Maḥall family.

  • ʿABD-AL-ḤAYY, ḴᵛĀJĀ

    P. P. Soucek

    Miniaturist (late 8th/14th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR

    D. Duda

    Calligrapher at the Safavid court in Isfahan in the time of Shah ʿAbbās I (17th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR ASTARĀBĀDĪ

    D. Duda

    calligrapher of the taʿlīq script and bookpainter. 

  • ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR AZDĪ

    D. M. Dunlop

    Governor of Khorasan, executed in 142/759.

  • ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR B. AḤMAD

    W. Madelung

    Prominent theologian of the late Muʿtazilite school (10th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-JALĪL BELGRĀMĪ

    M. Siddiqi

    Major 17th/18th century Indo-Muslim litterateur.

  • ʿABD-AL-JALĪL RĀZĪ

    W. Madelung

    Emāmī Shiʿite scholar, preacher, and author, b. probably early in the 6th/12th century.

  • ʿABD-AL-ḴĀLEQ ḠOJDOVĀNĪ

    K. A. Nizami

    Teacher and distinguished Naqšbandī saint (d. 617/1220), who consolidated and transmitted the thought of the Naqšbandī order.

  • ʿABD-AL-ḴĀN

    P. Oberling

    An Arab tribe of Ḵūzestān, it was originally affiliated with the Bani Lām tribal confederacy and resided in the region of ʿAmāra, in present-day Iraq.

  • ʿABD-AL-KARĪM ʿALAVĪ

    N. H. Zaidi

    Early 19th century Indo-Persian historian (d. ca. 1851).

  • ʿABD-AL-KARĪM BOḴĀRĪ

    M. Zand

    Bukharan traveler and memorialist (d. after 1830-31).

  • ʿABD-AL-KARĪM GAZĪ

    H. Algar

    A respected religious leader of Isfahan (1856-1921).

  • ʿABD-AL-KARĪM KAŠMĪRĪ

    S. Maqbul Ahmad

    Noted chronicler of Nāder Shah’s military campaigns (d. 1784).

  • ʿABD-AL-KARĪM ḴᵛĀRAZMĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    Specimens of calligraphy now in Leningrad and Istanbul are signed by him as written during his tenth, eleventh, and twelfth years, indicating that he was a skilled calligrapher at an early age. Unfortunately, none of these pages bear dates which would make it possible to determine the year of his birth.

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  • ʿABD-AL-LAṬĪF BHETĀʾĪ

    M. Baqir

    Sufi poet of Sind (1689-1752).

  • ʿABD-AL-LAṬĪF MĪRZĀ

    C. P. Haase

    Timurid ruler in Samarqand from Ramażān, 853/October, 1449 to 26 Rabīʿ I 854/8 May 1450.

  • ʿABD-AL-MAJĪD ṬĀLAQĀNĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    evered as the calligrapher who gave šekasta script its definitive form.

  • ʿABD-AL-MALEK B. NŪḤ

    C. E. Bosworth

    the penultimate ruler of the Samanid dynasty in Khorasan and Transoxania, r. 389/999.

  • ʿABD-AL-MALEK B. NŪḤ B. NAṢR

    C. E. Bosworth

    ruler of the Samanid dynasty in Transoxania and Khorasan, 343-350/954-61.

  • ʿABD-AL-MALEK ŠĪRĀZĪ

    D. Pingree

    astronomer, fl. ca. 600/1203-04; there is a manuscript dated in that year of his revision of Helāl b. Abū Helāl and Ṯābet b. Qorra’s translation of the Conica of Appolonius.

  • ʿABD-AL-MALEKĪ

    P. Oberling

    a Lek tribe of Māzandarān.

  • ʿABD-AL-MOʾMEN B. ʿABDALLĀH

    R. D. McChesney

    generally reckoned as the eleventh khan of the Shaibanid (Abu’l-Ḵayrī) dynasty of Māvarāʾ al-Nahr and Balḵ.

  • ʿABD-AL-MONʿEM ʿĀMELĪ

    D. Pingree

    10th/16th century astronomer.

  • ʿABD-AL-NABĪ

    K. A. Nizami

    Mughal traditionist, for a time much esteemed by the emperor Akbar (16th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-NABĪ AḤMADNAGARĪ

    M. Baqir

    12th/18th century Gujerati scholar.

  • ʿABD-AL-NABĪ QAZVĪNĪ

    M. Baqir

    Storyteller and poet in Mughal India (17th-century).

  • ʿABD-AL-QĀDER BALḴĪ

    T. Yazici

    (1839-1923), an Ottoman Sufi and poet who came originally from Balḵ. 

  • ʿABD-AL-QĀDER ḤOSAYNĪ

    M. Baqir

    16th-century poet of Sind.

  • ʿABD-AL-QĀDER JĪLĀNĪ

    B. Lawrence

    noted Hanbalite preacher, Sufi shaikh and the eponymous founder of the Qāderī order.

  • ʿABD-AL-QĀDER KHAN

    M. Aslam

    Author of Avīmāq-e Moḡol (publ. 1900), better known as Mirzā Moḥammad Āḡā Jān.

  • ʿABD-AL-QĀDER KHAN JĀʾEŠĪ

    M. Baqir

    Late Mughal biographer (18th-19th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-QĀDER RŪYĀNĪ

    D. Pingree

    Astronomer (16th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-QĀDER ŠĪRĀZĪ

    E. Baer

    Metalworker of late 13th century, whose one attested signed work is a silver and gold-inlaid brass bowl (Galleria Estense, Modena, no. 8082).

  • ʿABD-AL-QĀHER B. ṬĀHER

    Cross-Reference

    See BAḠDĀDĪ, ʿABD-AL-QĀHER.

  • ʿABD-AL-QĀHER JORJĀNĪ

    K. Abu Deeb

    celebrated grammarian, rhetorician, and literary theorist, born in Gorgān (date unknown), where he died in 471/1078.

  • ʿABD-AL-QAYS

    P. Oberling

    an eastern Arabian tribe.

  • ʿABD-AL-QODDŪS B. SOLṬĀN MOḤAMMAD

    R. D. McChesney

    called ŠAGASĪ, prominent Afghan military and political figure of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

  • ʿABD-AL-QODDŪS GANGŌHĪ

    B. B. Lawrence

    Indo-Muslim saint and litterateur (d. 1537).

  • ʿABD-AL-RĀFEʿ HERAVĪ

    Żīā-al-dīn Sajjādī

    poet, grammarian, and physician, first attached to the court of Ḵosrow Malek (555-82/1160-76), the last Ghaznavid sultan.

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤĪM ʿAJAMĪ

    D. Pingree

    Astronomer (d. 1026/1617).

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤĪM ʿANBARĪN-QALAM

    M. A. Chaghatai

    Calligrapher of India (fl. late 10th-11th centuries).

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤĪM DEHLAVĪ

    Fazlur Rahman

    Late Mughal scholar (d. 1726).

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤĪM ḴĀN ḴĀNĀN

    N. H. Zaidi

    Mughal general and statesman (d. 1627).

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤĪM ḴAYYĀṬ

    W. Madelung

    Muʿtazilite theologian of Baghdad (9th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤĪM ḴᵛĀRAZMĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    Calligrapher and poet active in western Iran during the second half of the 9th/15th century.

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN B. ʿOMAR ṢŪFĪ

    P. Kunitzsch

    Astronomer, especially well versed in knowledge of the fixed stars (10th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN B. SAMORA

    M. G. Morony

    Arab general who campaigned in Sīstān (d. 50/670).

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN B. SOYŪNJ

    R. D. MacChesney

    An Uzbek amir in Balḵ (17th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN ČEŠTĪ

    Hameed ud-Din

    Mughal saint and biographer (17th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN KHAN

    Cross-Reference

    Emir or ruler of Afghanistan, and member of the Bārakzay tribe of the Dorrāni tribal confederation, who unified the kingdom after the second Anglo-Afghan war (r. 1297-1319/1880-1901). See AFGHANISTAN x. Political History, BĀRAKZI, and DORRĀNI.

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN KᵛĀRAZMĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    Calligrapher specializing in nastaʿlīq, active during the middle decades of the 9th/15th century.

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN SAMARQANDĪ

    Y. Bregel

    late 19th century secretary (mīrzā). A Tajik, he was a native of Samarqand. 

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN SARAḴSĪ

    I. Abbas

    A Hanafite jurist (d. 1047).

  • ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN ŠAYZARĪ

    H. H. Biesterfeldt

    Syrian author and contemporary of Saladin (d. 589/1193).

  • ʿABD-AL-RAŠĪD DAYLAMĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    Calligrapher and poet who served the Mughal ruler Shah Jahān (1037-58/1628-58).

  • ʿABD-AL-RAŠĪD TATTAVĪ

    W. M. Thackston

    Noted lexicographer attached to the court of the Mughal ruler Shah Jahān.

  • ʿABD-AL-RAŠĪD, ABŪ MANṢŪR

    C. E. Bosworth

    Ghaznavid sultan, r. 441-44/1050-53.

  • ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ

    D. Duda

    Jahāngīr writes that sixteen miniatures are by Behzād, five by his teacher Mīrak, and one by ʿAbd-al-Razzāq. Earlier investigators did not succeed in establishing convincing attributions of the miniatures to these artists, as they were also puzzled by numerous apocryphal signatures and false identifications attached to the paintings.

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  • ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ AWRANGĀBĀDĪ

    Hameed ud-Din

    Mughal official and biographer, chiefly famous as the author of Maʾāṯer al-omarāʾ (18th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ b. AḤMAD b. ḤASAN MEYMANDI

    C. E. Bosworth

    vizier to the Ghaznavid sultans Mawdud b. Masʿud and ʿAbd-al-Rašid b. Maḥmud, remaining in official service under the latter’s successor Farroḵzād b. Masʿud.

  • ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ BĀŠTĪNĪ

    J. Aubin

    First leader of the Sarbadār uprising of Bayhaq (14th-century). His career, like the entire history of the Sarbadārs, is related in a contradictory fashion by the Timurid period chroniclers. With appropriate details, he is pictured as violent and dissolute.

  • ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ BEG

    J. R. Perry

    (1176-1243/1762-63 to 1827-28), literary biographer, poet, and historian of the early Qajar period.

  • ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ LĀHĪJĪ

    W. Madelung

    Theologian and philosopher (and poet under the pen name FAYYĀŻ, 11th/17th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ MAYMANDĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    Ghaznavid vizier of the middle years of the 5th/11th century.

  • ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ NAYSABŪRĪ

    E. Baer

    Metalworker of the second half of the 6th/12th century.

  • ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ SAMARQANDĪ

    C. P. Haase

    Historian and scholar (1413-82).

  • ʿABD-AL-REŻĀ KHAN

    M. Bayat

    (d. 1249/1833), deputy-governor and powerful noble of Yazd.

  • ʿABD-AL-REŻĀ KHAN EBRĀHĪMĪ

    D. MacEoin

    fifth head of the Kermānī branch of the Šayḵī school of Shiʿism.

  • ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD B. AFŻAL MOḤAMMAD

    M. Baqir

    Mughal editor and author (17th century)

  • ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD ḤAMADĀNĪ

    M. Bayat

    Faqīh, author, and well-known Sufi master of the Neʿmatallāhī order (d. 1216/1801).

  • ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD KHAN

    S. Maqbul Ahmad

    North Indian politician, administrator, and patron of the arts (17th-18th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD ŠĪRĀZĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    A painting recently in the art market bears an inscription stating it was painted by ʿAbd-al-Ṣamad during his 85th year, despite failing health, as a keepsake for his son (Moḥammad) Šarīf. Still active in 1008/1600, he appears to have died before the accession of Jahāngīr in 1014/1605.

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  • ʿABD-AL-SATTĀR LAHŪRĪ

    A. Camps

    author and translator in the reigns of Akbar and Jahāngīr.

  • ʿABD-AL-VĀḤED (Potter)

    O. Watson

    A potter whose signature is found on a blue and black underglaze painted dish dated 971/1563.

  • ʿABD-AL-VĀḤED (Author)

    D. Pingree

    8th/14th century author.

  • ʿABD-AL-VĀḤED B. ZAYD

    P. Nwyia

    (d. 177/793), Sufi, the leading personality among the ascetics trained in the school of Ḥasan Baṣrī.

  • ʿABD-AL-VĀḤED HAMADĀNĪ

    T. Yazici

    Son of a Naqšbandī shaikh, author (d. 1547).

  • ʿABD-AL-VĀḤED JŪZJĀNĪ

    D. Pingree

    Pupil of Ebn Sīnā (980-1037).

  • ʿABD-AL-VĀḤED MAŠHADĪ

    F. Cağman and P. P. Soucek

    The style of nastaʿlīq favored by ʿAbd-al-Vāḥed is closely connected with that used by Solṭān-ʿAlī Mašhadī and other calligraphers active in Iran during the 9th/15th century, a fact that suggests that he was indeed trained in Iran.

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  • ʿABD-AL-VAHHĀB BOHRĀ

    P. Saran

    chief judge (qāżī) in the reign of the Mughal emperor Awrangzēb.

  • ʿABD-AL-VAHHĀB MAŠHADĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    a calligrapher of the 10th/16th century who lived most of his life in Mašhad.

  • ʿABD-AL-VAHHĀB MOʿTAMAD-AL-DAWLA

    H. Javadi

    “NAŠĀṬ,” Qajar official and poet (1759-1829).

  • ʿABD-AL-VAHHĀB SAČAL

    A. Schimmel

    Sindhi mystical poet (18th-early 19th century).

  • ʿABD-AL-VĀSEʿ JABALĪ

    Ẕ. Ṣafā

    Persian poet, d. 555/1160.

  • ABDADĀNA

    M. Dandamayev

    Region in western Media, mentioned in Neo-Assyrian royal inscriptions and annals.

  • ABDAGASES

    C. J. Brunner

    “great king” of the Pahlava dynasty in Drangiana, Arachosia, Gandhāra, and perhaps loosely over the Indus region.

  • ʿABDAK AL-ṢŪFĪ

    B. Reinert

    an eccentric religious devotee of Kūfa, who also lived for periods at Baghdad, late 2nd/8th to early 3rd/9th centuries.

  • ABDĀL

    J. Chabbi

    An Arabic technical term designating one of the categories of awlīāʾ (“friends of God,” Muslim saints).

  • ABDĀL BEG

    E. Glassen

    one of the seven trusted Qezelbāš amirs (ahl-e eḵteṣāṣ) who, after the death of Solṭān ʿAlī (898/1493), accompanied the latter’s young brother and designated master of the Safavid order, Esmāʿīl, to Lāhīǰān, where he found refuge from the persecution of the Āq Qoyonlū rulers.

  • ABDĀL ČEŠTĪ

    M. Imam

    described by Jāmī as the foremost among the shaikhs of Češt. He was born in 260/874.

  • ABDĀL, QARA ŠEMSĪ

    T. Yazici

    (1244-1303/1828-86), a Turkish poet who also wrote poetry in Persian.

  • ABDĀLĪ

    C. M. Kieffer

    ancient name of a large tribe, or more particularly of a group of Afghan tribes, better known by the name of Dorrānī since the reign of Aḥmad Šāh Dorrānī (1747-72). 

  • ʿABDALLĀH

    L. Mackie

    Name appearing on four diverse, high-quality silks of the first half of the 17th century.

  • ʿABDALLĀH (2)

    I. H. Siddiqi

    Author of Tārīḵ-e Dāʾūdī, fl. early 17th century.

  • ʿABDALLĀH ANṢĀRĪ

    S. de Laugier de Beaureceuil

    Outstanding commentator of the Koran, traditionist, polemicist, and spiritual master (5th/11th century).

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. AḤMAD

    Cross-Reference

    See EBN AL-BAYṬĀR.

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. ʿĀMER

    J. Lassner

    Arab general and governor active in Iran, b. in Mecca in 4/626.

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. EBRĀHĪM

    C. P. Haase

    Timurid khan (k. 1451).

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. ʿĪSĀ

    L. Richter-Bernburg

    Medical author (early 5th/11th century).

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. ḴĀZEM

    D. M. Dunlop

    Arab military leader, governor of Khorasan (d. 691-92).

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. MAYMŪN AL-QADDĀḤ

    H. Halm

    Legendary founder of the Qarmatian-Ismaʿili doctrine and alleged forefather of the Fatimid dynasty.

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. MOʿĀVĪA

    D. M. Dunlop

    Rebel in western Iran in 744-47.

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. MOBĀRAK

    P. Nwyia

    Traditionist (736-97).

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. NAJĀŠĪ

    ʿA. N. Monzavī

    Shiʿite governor of Ahvāz under the caliph Manṣūr (8th century).

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. ʿOMAR

    ʿA. Ḥabībī

    Author of an Arabic monograph on the city of Balḵ (d. after 610/1213).

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. ŠĀKER

    D. Pingree

    Expert in geometry (d. 1174-75).

  • ʿABDALLĀH B. ṬĀHER

    C. E. Bosworth

    Governor of Khorasan (9th century).

  • ʿABDALLĀH BAYĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABDALLĀH MORVĀRĪD.

  • ʿABDALLĀH BEHBAHĀNĪ

    H. Algar

    Theologian, prominent leader of the constitutional movement (1840-1910).

  • ʿABDALLĀH BOḴĀRĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    Paintings signed by ʿAbdallāh are of two types: compositions showing strong influence from Herat painting of the late 15th and early 16th centuries and studies of couples, often in a garden setting, a theme which appears to have been especially popular in Bokhara.

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  • ʿABDALLĀH HERAVĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    Calligrapher active in Herat, Samarqand, and Mashad (mid-15th century).

  • ʿABDALLĀH ḤOSAYNĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    Scribe and poet in the service of the Mughal emperors Akbar and Jahāngīr (17th century).

  • ʿABDALLĀH KABRĪ

    D. Pingree

    Mathematician (d. 1083-84).

  • ʿABDALLĀH KHAN

    B. W. Robinson

    Court painter (18th-19th century).

  • ʿABDALLĀH KHAN B. ESKANDAR

    Yu. Bregel

    Šaybānīd ruler of Transoxania (d. 1598).

  • ʿABDALLĀH KHAN UZBEK

    M. H. Siddiqi

    Mughal noble and general and also briefly an autonomous ruler (10th/16th century).

  • ʿABDALLĀH MĀZANDARĀNĪ, SHAIKH

    H. Algar

    Theologian and supporter of the constitutional movement (1840-1912).

  • ʿABDALLĀH MĪRZĀ DĀRĀ

    Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī

    Son of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah and governor of Ḵamsa province (1796-1846).

  • ʿABDALLĀH MORVĀRĪD

    P. P. Soucek

    (d. 1516), Timurid court official, poet, scribe, and musician.

  • ʿABDALLĀH PAŠA KÖPRÜLÜZĀDE

    M. Kohbach

    Ottoman statesman and commander-in-chief (d. 1735).

  • ʿABDALLĀH ṢAYRAFĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    Dūst Moḥammad claims that the traditions of Khorasani calligraphy in the nasḵ script are derived from the writing of ʿAbdallāh Ṣayrafī, with Jaʿfar Tabrīzī acting perhaps as the transmitter of the tradition. ʿAbdallāh achieved his greatest fame as a designer of architectural inscriptions.

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  • ʿABDALLĀH ŠĪRĀZĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    Qāżī Aḥmad praises ʿAbdallāh’s skill in lacquer painting (rang o rowḡan). This technique was widely used in the decoration of bookbindings during the 16th century, and the examination of surviving bindings may lead to the discovery of further works by ʿAbdallāh.

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  • ʿABDALLĀH, MĪRZĀ

    M. Caton

    (ca. 1843-1918), court musician and master of the setār and tār.

  • ʿABDALLĀH, QAVĀM-AL-DĪN

    T. Kuroyanagi

    14th century theologian and faqīh of Shiraz (d. 772/1370).

  • ʿABDALLĀH, ŠĀH

    K. A. Nizami

    (d. 1485), Persian Sufi who introduced the Šaṭṭārī order into India.

  • ʿABDALLĀH, ṢĀRĪ

    T. Yazici

    (1584-1660), Ottoman scholar, mystic, poet, and commentator of Rūmī.

  • ʿABDĀN B. AL-RABĪṬ

    W. Madelung

    early Ismaʿili missionary (dāʿī).

  • ʿABDĪ

    T. Yazici

    pen name of ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN PASHA, Ottoman official and historian (d. 1692).

  • ʿABDĪ BOḴĀRĀʾĪ

    M. Zand

    (d. 1921-22), Tajik taḏkeranevīs (biographer) and poet.

  • ʿABDĪ NĪŠĀPŪRĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    16th-century calligrapher and poet.

  • ʿABDĪ ŠĪRĀZĪ

    M. Dabīrsīāqī and B. Fragner

    (1513-80), poet.

  • ABDĪH UD SAHĪGĪH Ī SAGASTĀN

    A. Tafażżolī

    (“The wonder and remarkability of Sagastān”), short Pahlavi treatise.

  • ʿĀBEDĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    a landowner (dehqān) of Transoxania (12th century).

  • ĀBƎRƎT

    W. W. Malandra

    one of the eight Zoroastrian priests of the yasna ritual.

  • ĀBEŠ ḴĀTŪN

    B. Spuler

     Salghurid ruler of Fārs (1263-84), daughter of Atābeg Saʿd II.

  • ABGAR

    J. B. Segal

    dynasty of Edessa, 2nd century B.C. to 3rd century A.D.

  • ABHAR

    C. E. Bosworth

    a small town in the Qazvīn district.

  • ʿABHAR AL-ʿĀŠEQĪN

    H. Corbin

    work of the Persian mystic Rūzbehān Baqlī Šīrāzī (1128-1209).

  • ABHARĪ, ABŪ BAKR

    B. Reinert

    Sufi of Persian ʿErāq (d. 941-42).

  • ABHARĪ, AMĪN-AL-DĪN

    D. Pingree

     mathematician, said to have died in 1332-33.

  • ABHARĪ, AṮĪR-AL-DĪN

    G. C. Anawati

    (d. 1264), logician, mathematician, and astronomer.

  • ABHARĪ, KAMĀL-AL-DĪN

    C. E. Bosworth

    vizier of the last two Great Saljuq sultans in western Persia.

  • ABHARĪ, MAḴDŪM

    Hameed ud-Din

    16th-century traditionist.

  • ĀBĪ

    E. Ehlers

    Persian term for those agricultural lands which are irrigated.

  • ĀBĪ, ABŪ ʿABDALLĀH

    Abu’l-Qāsem Gorji

    8th-century traditionist.

  • ĀBĪ, ABŪ SAʿĪD

    M. M. Mazzaoui

    11th-century vizier and man of letters.

  • ĀBĪ, ʿEZZ-AL-DĪN

    Abu’l-Qāsem Gorji

    Imami faqīh (jurist) of the 13th century.

  • ABIRĀDŪŠ

    M. Dandamayev

    a village in Elam.

  • ABIRATTA(Š)

    M. Mayrhofer

    ancient Near Eastern proper name said to be of (Indo-)Aryan origin, by comparison with Vedic ratha, Avestan raθa “chariot.” This analysis, however, remains uncertain.

  • ABĪVARD

    C. E. Bosworth

     a town in medieval northern Khorasan.

  • ABĪVARDĪ, ABU’L-MOẒAFFAR

    L. A. Giffen

    poet, historian, and writer on genealogy (d. 1113).

  • ABĪVARDĪ, ḤOSĀM-AL-DĪN

    L. A. Giffen

    jurisconsult, mathematician and logician (d. 1413).

  • ABJAD

    G. Krotkoff

     “alphabet,” a word formed from the first four letters of the Semitic alphabet.

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  • ABJADĪ

    M. Baqir

    Poetical name of MĪR MOḤAMMAD ESMĀʿĪL KHAN, 18th century south-Indian poet of Persian and Urdu.

  • ABḴĀZ

    Dzh. Giunashvili

    (also APSUA, APSNI), ethnic group of the Caucasus.

  • ABLUTION, ISLAMIC

    I. K. Poonawala

    (vożūʾ), the minor ritual purification performed before prayers.

  • ABLUTION, ZOROASTRIAN

    Cross-Reference

    See PADYĀB.

  • ABNĀʾ

    C. E. Bosworth

    "sons," term for the offspring of Persian soldiers and officials in the Yemen and of Arab mothers.

  • ABOULITES

    C. J. Brunner

    satrap of Susiana under Darius III, at the time of the Achaemenid collapse.

  • ABRADATAS

    C. J. Brunner

     a fictional king of Susa in Xenophon’s fictional, didactic life of Cyrus (Cyropaedia, books 5-7).

  • ABRAHAM

    Cross-Reference

    See EBRĀHĪM.

  • ABRAHAM OF CRETE

    George A. Bournoutian

    (Kretatsʾi; b. Kandia, Crete, ?- d. Ejmiatsin, 18 April 1737), a leader of the Armenian Church and the author of a chronicle about Nāder Shah Afšār.

  • ABRAHAM OF EREVAN

    George A. Bournoutian

    the author of a history of the wars in Armenian at the time of Nāder Shah Afšār.

  • ABRAHAMIAN, ROUBEN

    Jennifer Manoukian

    Armenian Iranist, linguist, and translator. One of the first teachers of Pahlavi language at University of Tehran.

  • ABRĀZ

    C. J. Brunner

    Middle Persian “high, superior, height,” old Iranian *uparyānk- “above, high.”

  • ABRĪŠAM

    W. Eilers, M. Bazin and C. Bromberger, D. Thompson

    Abrīšam appears as a loan word from Iranian in Armenian aprišum, aprešum, Syriac/Mandean ʾbryšwm, and Arabic ebrīsam. The NPers. rēšam/rīšam is evidently only a shortened form of abrēšam. In dialects one also finds čolla (borrowed in Turkic dialects as čille), from *čullak, arabicized as ṣollaǰ, properly speaking, “very fine cotton.”

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  • ĀBRĪZAGĀN

    M. Boyce

    “the pouring of water,” name for a Zoroastrian feast; the term could be used for Tīragān and probably also for the name-day festival of Hordād, both of which were celebrated by people sprinkling one another joyfully with water.

  • ĀšBRĪZĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See TĪRAGĀN.

  • ABROCOMAS

    M. Dandamayev

    Persian satrap of Syria and commander under Artaxerxes II.

  • ABROCOMES

    M. Dandamayev

    a son of Darius I by Phrataguna, daughter of his brother Artanes.

  • ĀBŠĪNA HAMADĀN RŪD

    E. Ehlers

    name of a drainage system that covers several streams and small rivers along the eastern flank of the Alvand Kūh; it flows north into the kavīr of Qom.

  • ĀBŠŪR RŪD

    E. Ehlers

    “salt river.” The name ābšūr is very common in Iran for those rivers with a high salt content.

  • ĀBTĪN

    A. Tafażżolī

    father of the mythical king Feridun of the Pišdādi dynasty.

  • ABŪ ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN SOLAMĪ

    S. Sh. Kh. Hussaini

    (325-412/937-1021), Sufi, traditionist, and hagiographer.

  • ABŪ ʿABDALLĀH B. AL-BAYYEʿ

    R. W. Bulliet

    a noted traditionist and local historian, b. 321/933, d. 405/1014.

  • ABŪ ʿABDALLĀH YAʿQŪB

    D. Sourdel

    vizier of the ʿAbbasid caliph Mahdī (r. 158-69/775-85).

  • ABŪ AḤMAD B. ABĪ BAKR KĀTEB

    C. E. Bosworth

    poet and official of the Samanids, fl. first half of the 4th/10th century.

  • ABŪ AḤMAD MONAJJEM

    A. E. Khairallah

    (241/855-56 to 13 Rabīʿ I 300/29 October 912), literary historian, music theorist, poet, and Muʿtazilite, boon companion to caliphs Mowaffaq, Moʿtażed, and Moktafī.

  • ABŪ ʿALĪ AḤMAD B. ŠĀḎĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    governor (ʿamīd) of Balḵ and northern Afghanistan under the Saljuq ruler of Khorasan, Čaḡrī Beg Dāʾūd, and then under his son, Alp Arslan.

  • ABŪ ʿALĪ BALḴĪ

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    author of a Šāh-nāma, according to Bīrūnī (Āṯār al-bāqīa, pp. 99f.).

  • ABŪ ʿALĪ DĀMḠĀNĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    vizier of the Samanids in the last years of their power.

  • ABŪ ʿALĪ DAQQĀQ

    J. Chabbi

    ascetic of Nīšāpūr (d. 405/1015).

  • ABŪ ʿALĪ FĀRESĪ

    I. Abbas

    (288-377/900-87), grammarian at the court of the Buyid ʿAżod-al-dawla (d. 366/977).

  • ABŪ ʿALĪ MESKAVAYH

    Cross-Reference

    Persian chancery official and treasury clerk of the Buyid period, boon companion, litterateur and accomplished writer in Arabic on a variety of topics, including history, theology, philosophy and medicine (d. 421/1030). See MESKAVAYH, ABU ʿALI AḤMAD.

  • ABŪ ʿALĪ QALANDAR

    Kh. A. Nizami

    (also known as SHAH BŪ ʿALĪ QALANDAR), Indian poet and saint, d. 725/1324. His mausoleum at Panipat remains a popular center for pilgrimage.

  • ABŪ ʿAMR AL-MĀZOLĪ

    J. van Ess

    Karrāmī theologian, fl. mid-4th/mid-10th century.

  • ABŪ ʿAṬĀ

    G. Tsuge

    one of the twelve modes in the dastgāh system of classical Iranian music; more precisely, it should be called āvāz-e Abū ʿAṭā or naḡma-ye Abū ʿAṭā.

  • ABŪ ʿAWĀNA

    J. A. Wakin

    a Shafeʿite legal scholar and traditionist.

  • ABŪ ʿAWN

    R. W. Bulliet

    a distinguished ʿAbbasid general, twice governor of Egypt and once of Khorasan.

  • ABŪ BAKR AL-WARRĀQ

    B. Reinert

    Sufi shaikh, born in Termeḏ, lived and worked in Balḵ, d. 280/893.

  • ABŪ BAKR B. ABĪ ṢĀLEḤ

    C. E. Bosworth

    vizier of the Ghaznavids in the 5th/11th century.

  • ABŪ BAKR B. PAHLAVĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ATĀBAKĀN-E ĀḎARBĀYJĀN.

  • ABŪ BAKR B. SAʿD

    B. Spuler

    (623-58/1226-60), member of the Salghurid dynasty, atabeg of Fārs.

  • ABŪ BAKR ḤAṢĪRĪ

    Ḡ. Ḥ. Yūsofī

    Shafeʿite faqīh (jurist) and Ghaznavid official, d. 424/1033.

  • ABŪ BAKR KALĀBĀḎĪ

    W. Madelung

    author of the well-known compendium of Sufism al-Taʿarrof le-maḏhab ahl al-taṣawwof.

  • ABŪ BAKR MARVAZĪ

    A. A. Ivanov

    7th/13th century metalworker.

  • ABŪ BAKR NAYSĀBŪRĪ

    M. J. McDermott

    a jurist loosely belonging to the Shafeʿite school.

  • ABŪ BAKR QOHESTĀNĪ

    Ḡ. Ḥ. Yūsofī

     fl. 5th/11th century, a courtier and man of letters under the Ghaznavids and Saljuqs; himself a poet, he patronized poetry generously.

  • ABŪ BAKR SAMARQANDĪ

    I. Abbas

    (d. 268/881), a Hanafite jurist about whose life the available sources furnish no information.

  • ABŪ BAKR SARAḴSĪ

    J. W. Clinton

    a follower (but apparently not a contemporary) of Shaikh Abū Saʿīd b. Abi’l-Ḵayr (d. 440/1049).

  • ABŪ BAKR ṬŪSĪ ḤAYDARĪ

    B. Lawrence

    7th/13th century Indo-Muslim saint.

  • ABŪ ḎARR BŪZJĀNĪ

    M. N. Osmanov

    a Persian poet and Sufi shaikh contemporary with Sebüktigin (d. 387/997).

  • ABŪ ḎARR HERAVĪ

    J. A. Wakin

    a traditionist known primarily for his role in the transmission of Boḵārī’s Jāmeʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ.

  • ABŪ DOLAF AL-YANBŪʿĪ

    R. W. Bulliet

    Arab traveler, poet, and frequenter of the Buyid court (ca. mid-4th/10th century).

  • ABŪ DOLAF ʿEJLĪ

    F. M. Donner

    Arab military chieftain, author, poet, governor, and boon companion for several ʿAbbasid caliphs, and most important member of the ʿEǰlī dynasty of western Iran, flourished in the early 3rd/9th century.

  • ABŪ ʿEKREMA

    D. M. Dunlop

    a freedman of Banū Ḥamdān, regarded as the first ʿAbbasid propagandist in Khorasan.

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ AL-ŠĪRĀZĪ

    W. Madelung

    Shafeʿite jurist, b. 393/1003 in Fīrūzābād in Fār.

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ AṬʿEMA

    Cross-Reference

    (d. 1420s) satirical poet who used Persian culinary vocabulary and imagery and kitchen terminology to create a novel style of poetry. See BOSḤĀQ AṬʿEMA.

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ EBRĀHĪM

    C. E. Bosworth

    governor of Ḡazna in eastern Afghanistan on behalf of the Samanids (352/963-355/966).

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ ĪNJŪ

    J. W. Limbert

    (721-58/1321-59), ruler of Fārs, ʿErāq ʿAǰam (Isfahan), and parts of southern Iran, 743-55/1343-54.

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ KĀZARŪNĪ

    B. Lawrence

    Sufi and eponymous founder of the Kāzarūnīya/Esḥāqīya order.

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ NAẒẒĀM

    J. van Ess

    famous adīb and Muʿtazilite theologian.

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ ŠĀMĪ

    Mutiul Imam

    founder and eminent early saint of the Češtī order (3rd-4th/9th-10th century).

  • ABŪ ḤAFṢ ḤADDĀD

    J. Chabbi

    an ascetic who was born and lived in Nīšāpūr, d. between 265/874 and 270/879.

  • ABŪ ḤAFṢ SOḠDĪ

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    one of the so-called “first poets” in New Persian.

  • ABŪ ḤĀMED TORKA

    Fazlur Rahman

    scholar and author of the late 7th/13th and early 8th/14th centuries, the first in a line of prominent men of the Torka-ye Eṣfahānī family.

  • ABŪ ḤAMZA ḴORĀSĀNĪ

    B. Reinert

    (d. 290/903), Sufi born and active in Nīšāpūr.

  • ABŪ ḤANĪFA

    U. F. ʿAbd-Allāh

    (80-150/699-767), eponym of the Ḥanafī school of Islamic law—the largest of the four primary Sunni schools of law

  • ABŪ ḤANĪFA ESKĀFĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ESKĀFĪ, ABŪ ḤANĪFA.

  • ABŪ HĀŠEM ʿABDALLĀH

    T. Nagel

     ʿAlid figure in Shiʿite tradition.

  • ABŪ ḤĀTEM RĀZĪ

    H. Halm

    Ismaʿili dāʿī (missionary) and author of the 4th/10th century.

  • ABŪ ḤAYYĀN TAWḤĪDĪ

    W. M. Watt

    an outstanding man of letters and essayist of the Buyid period.

  • ABŪ ʿĪSĀ EṢFAHĀNĪ

    J. Lassner

    founder of the ʿĪsāwīya, an obscure Jewish sect in Islamic times.

  • ABŪ ʿĪSĀ WARRĀQ

    W. M. Watt

    heretical theologian of the 3rd/9th century.

  • ABŪ JAʿFAR B. AḤMAD

    D. Pingree

    mid- to late 3rd/9th century astronomer, son of a famous astronomer from Marv.

  • ABŪ JAʿFAR ḴĀZEN

    D. Pingree

    astronomer (ca. 287/900-probably 360/970).

  • ABŪ ḴĀLĪJĀR ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN MARZBĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN MARZBĀN.

  • ABŪ KĀLĪJĀR GARŠĀSP (I)

    C. E. Bosworth

    second son of the Kakuyid amir of Jebāl, ʿAlāʾ-al-dawla Moḥammad b. Došmanzīār, ruled in Hamadān and parts of what are now Kurdistan and Luristan, 433-37/1041-42 to 1045, d. 443/1051-52.

  • ABŪ KĀLĪJĀR GARŠĀSP (II)

    C. E. Bosworth

    member of the Dailamite dynasty of the Kakuyids (d. 536/1141?).

  • ABŪ LOʾLOʾA

    Ch. Pellat

    a Persian slave of Moḡīra b. Šoʿba, the governor of Baṣra, who assassinated the caliph ʿOmar b. al-Ḵaṭṭāb, on Wednesday, 26 Ḏu’l-ḥeǰǰa 23/2 November 644.

  • ABŪ MANṢŪR ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    dehqān (landowner) of Ṭūs, official under the Samanids, and patron of a lost prose Šāh-nāma (Šāh-nāma-ye Abū Manṣūrī).

  • ABŪ MANṢŪR FARĀMARZ

    C. E. Bosworth

    eldest son of the Kakuyid amir of Jebāl, ʿAlāʾ-al-dawla Moḥammad b. Došmanzīār.

  • ABŪ MANṢŪR HERAVĪ

    L. Richter-Bernburg

    (fl. ca. 370-80/980-90), author of the oldest preserved Persian text on materia medicaKetāb al-abnīa ʿan ḥaqāʾeq al-adwīa.

  • ABŪ MANṢŪR MAʿMARĪ

    Dj. Khalegi-Motlagh

    minister (dastūr) of Abū Manṣūr b. ʿAbd-al-Razzāq (d. 350/961), a military commander of Khorasan under the Samanids.

  • ABŪ MANṢŪR ṬŪSĪ

    D. Pingree

    mathematician.

  • ABŪ MAʿŠAR

    D. Pingree

    astronomer and astrologer, born in Balḵ on 20 Ṣafar 171/10 August 787. 

  • ABŪ MOSLEM EṢFAHĀNĪ

    Wilferd Madelung

    secretary, official, man of letters, and Muʿtazilite Koran commentator, b. 254/868, probably in Isfahan.

  • ABŪ MOSLEM ḴORĀSĀNĪ

    Ḡ. Ḥ. Yūsofī

    prominent leader in the ʿAbbasid cause. 

  • ABŪ MOṬĪʿ AL-BALḴĪ

    L. A. Giffen

    faqīh, judge, and traditionist, disciple of Abū Ḥanīfa, died 183/799 in Balḵ.

  • ABU MUSĀ i - ii

    E. Ehlers

    island in the Persian Gulf.

  • ABU MUSĀ iii

    Guive Mirfendereski

    (Bu Musā), a small island in the eastern Persian Gulf (25°52′ N, 55°2′ E).

  • ABŪ MŪSĀ AŠʿARĪ

    G. R. Hawting

    a Companion of the Prophet and important participant in the troubles which occupied the caliphate of ʿAlī. 

  • ABŪ MŪSĀ MORDĀR

    J. van Ess

    theologian and ascetic, early representative of the Baghdad branch of the Moʿtazela (d. 226/840-41).

  • ABŪ NAṢR AḤMAD

    C. E. Bosworth

    Samanid amir in Transoxania and Khorasan (295-301/907-14).

  • ABŪ NAṢR AL-ESMĀʿĪLĪ

    W. M. Watt

    an alleged teacher of Abū Ḥāmed Ḡazālī (450-505/1058-1111).

  • ABŪ NAṢR FĀMĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    (472-546/1079-1151), local historian of Herat in the Saljuq period.

  • ABŪ NAṢR FĀRĀBĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See FĀRĀBĪ, ABŪ NAṢR.

  • ABŪ NAṢR FĀRSĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    Official, soldier and poet of the Ghaznavid empire, flourished in the second half of the 5th/11th century during the reigns of the sultans Ebrāhīm b. Masʿūd I and Masʿūd III b. Ebrāhīm.

  • ABŪ NAṢR MANṢŪR

    D. Pingree

    mathematician and astronomer, born probably in Gīlān about 349/960.

  • ABŪ NAṢR MOŠKĀN

    H. Moayyad

    head of the Ghaznavid chancery under Maḥmūd and Masʿūd from 401/1011-12 till his death in 431/1039-40.

  • ABŪ NAṢR MOSTAWFĪ

    K. A. Luther

    well-known official of the Saljuqs of Iraq.

  • ABŪ NAṢR ʿOTBĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿOTBĪ, ABŪ NAṢR.

  • ABŪ NOʿAYM AL-EṢFAHĀNĪ

    W. Madelung

    famous traditionist and author of the collection of Sufi biographies Ḥelyat al-awlīāʾ.

  • ABŪ ʿOBAYDA MAʿMAR

    C. E. Bosworth

    Arabic philologist and grammarian (probably 110-209/728-824, but the sources have other, slightly different dates).

  • ABŪ ʿOṮMĀN RABĪʿA

    L. A. Giffen

    often called RABĪʿAT-AL-RAʾY, important lawyer of the ancient school of Medina and transmitter of Traditions from Companions of the Prophet, died 136/753. 

  • ABŪ RAJĀʾ ḠAZNAVĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ḠAZNAVĪ, ABŪ RAJĀʾ.

  • ABŪ RAŠĪD NĪSĀBŪRĪ

    D. W. Madelung

    Muʿtazilite scholar. He was probably born not later than 360/970.

  • ABŪ SAʿD TOSTARĪ

    S. D. Goitein

    businessman and quasi-vizier in Fatimid Egypt, d. 439/1047.

  • ABŪ SAHL ḤAMDOWĪ

    Ḡ. Ḥ. Yūsofī

    Ghaznavid official of the 4th-5th/11th century.

  • ABŪ SAHL ḴOJANDĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    vizier of the Ghaznavids in the 5th/11th century. 

  • ABŪ SAHL KŪHĪ

    D. Pingree

    (also QŪHĪ), mathematician and astronomer.

  • ABŪ SAHL LAKŠAN

    Ḡ. Ḥ. Yūsofī

     official under the Ghaznavid amirs Maḥmūd (388-421/998-1030) and Masʿūd (421-32/1031-41).

  • ABŪ SAHL NAWBAḴT

    D. Pingree

    2nd/8th century astrologer and author.  

  • ABŪ SAHL NAWBAḴTĪ

    W. Madelung

    a prominent member of the Nawbaḵtī family and noted Imamite leader and scholar.

  • ABŪ SAHL ZŪZANĪ

    Ḡ. Ḥ. Yūsofī

    courtier and official under the Ghaznavid amirs Maḥmūd (388-421/998-1030) and Masʿūd (421-32/1031-41), d. ca. 440-50/1050-59.

  • ABŪ SAʿĪD ABI’L-ḴAYR

    G. Böwering

    famous Iranian mystic, born 1 Moḥarram 357/7 December 967 at Mēhana, a small town in Khorasan, about fifty miles west of Saraḵs, and died there 4 Šaʿbān 440/12 January 1049.

  • ABŪ SAʿĪD BAHĀDOR KHAN

    P. Jackson

    ninth Il-khan of Iran, the son and successor of Öljeitü (Ūlǰāytū).

  • ABŪ SAʿĪD JANNĀBĪ

    W. Madelung

    founder of the Qarmaṭī state in Baḥrain (b. between 230/845, and 240/855, d. 300/913 or 301/913-14). 

  • ABŪ SAʿĪD KHAN

    Y. Bregel

    cousin of Šaybānī Khan and great-grandson of Uluḡ Beg in the female line, khan of the Uzbeks of Transoxania (936-40/1530-33).  

  • ABŪ ŠAKŪR BALḴĪ

    G. Lazard

    poet of the Samanid period.

  • ABŪ SALAMA ḴALLĀL

    R. W. Bulliet

    head of the Hashemite propaganda organization (daʿwa) that sparkled the ʿAbbasid revolution and first vizier of the new dynasty. 

  • ABŪ ṢĀLEḤ MANṢŪR

    C. E. Bosworth

    Samanid prince, the cousin of the amir Aḥmad b. Esmāʿīl (295-301/907-14) and uncle of his successor Naṣr b. Aḥmad (301-31/914-43).

  • ABŪ ṢĀLEḤ MANṢŪR (I) NŪḤ

    C. E. Bosworth

    (350-66/961-76), Samanid ruler in Transoxania and Khorasan and successor of his brother ʿAbd-al-Malek after the latter’s death in Šawwāl, 350/November, 961.

  • ABŪ SALĪK GORGĀNĪ

    M. N. Osmanov

    Persian poet, contemporary of ʿAmr b. Layṯ the Saffarid (265-88/879-901). 

  • ABŪ ŠOʿAYB HERAVĪ

    J. W. Clinton

    or BŪ ŠOʿAYB as he is more commonly known, one of the many poets of the Samanid court which has survived virtually in name only.

  • ABŪ ŠOJĀʿ EṢFAHĀNĪ

    H. Halm

    (434-500/1042-43 to 1106, Shafeʿite jurist. 

  • ABŪ ŠOJĀʿ FANĀ ḴOSROW

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿAŻOD-AL-DAWLA.

  • ABŪ ṬĀHER

    O. Watson

    Far from the works of the son following close upon those of the father, the gap between known works of the first generation is twenty-eight years, and between the second generations, forty-two years. Late marriage and long apprenticeships may be the explanation. However, the time gap would seem to indicate that the son did not learn his skills directly from father.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ABŪ ṬĀHER B. MOḤAMMAD

    Cross-Reference

    See ATĀBAKĀN-E LORESTĀN.

  • ABŪ ṬĀHER ḴĀTŪNĪ

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    officer, famous poet, and author in the reign of the Saljuq Sultan Moḥammad b. Malekšāh (498-511/1105-18).

  • ABŪ TAHER ḴOSRAVĀNĪ

    M. Dabīrsīāqī

    a poet of the Samanid period.

  • ABŪ ṬĀHER SAMARQANDĪ

    M. Zand

    author of a book named Ṯamarīya (first half of the 13th/19th century).

  • ABŪ ṬĀLEB ḤOSAYNĪ

    Hameed ud-Din

    Mughal scholar chiefly famous for his alleged discovery of Malfūẓāt-e Tīmūrī or Wāqeʿāt-e Tīmūrī, an autobiographical account of Tīmūr from the 7th to the 74th year of his life.

  • ABŪ ṬĀLEB KALĪM

    Cross-Reference

    (b. ca. 1581-85; d. 1651), Persian poet and one of the leading exponents of the “Indian style” (sabk-e hendi). See KALĪM KĀŠĀNI.

  • ABŪ ṬĀLEB KHAN LANDANĪ

    M. Baqir

    Official and author in British India (18th-19th century).

  • ABU ṬĀLEB TABRIZI

    ʿA. Kārang

    Poet and physician whose pen name was Ṭāleb (d. 1015/1606-07).

  • ABŪ TORĀB NAḴŠABĪ

    B. Radtke

    noted 3rd/9th century ascetic.

  • ABŪ TORĀB WALĪ

    S. Moinul Haq

    noble in the service of Akbar and author of Tārīḵ-e Goǰrāt, a short history of that province from the reign of Bahādor Shah (932-43/1526-36), with an account of his wars against Homāyūn, through Akbar’s conquest and up to 992/1584.

  • ABU YAʿQUB HAMADĀNI

    H. Algar

    Important figure in the history of Iranian and Central Asian Sufism, largely neglected by both Iranian and Western scholarship (440-535/1048-49 to 1140).

  • ABŪ YAʿQŪB JORJĀNĪ

    J. van Ess

    disciple of Ebn Karrām (d. 255/869).  

  • ABŪ YAʿQŪB SEJESTĀNĪ

    P. E. Walker

    one of the most important of the early Ismaʿili dāʿīs.

  • ABU YAZĪD BESṬĀMI

    Cross-Reference

    See BESṬĀMĪ, BĀYAZĪD.

  • ABŪ YŪSOF QAZVINI

    W. Madelung

    Muʿtazilite scholar and author of an immense Koran commentary, born Šaʿbān, 393/June, 1003 (according to another report 391) in Qazvīn.

  • ABŪ ZAYD B. MOḤAMMAD KĀŠĀNĪ

    O. Watson

    perhaps the single most important luster potter of Kāšān known to us. More signed and dated works (from 587/1191 to 616/1219) are known by him than by any other potter, and his signature occurs on a greater variety of wares, including both tiles and vessels.

  • ABŪ ZAYD BALḴĪ

    W. M. Watt

    noted scholar in both Islamic and philosophical disciplines, but now known chiefly as a geographer. He was born in the village of Šāmestīān, near Balḵ in Khorasan, ca. 235/849 and died there in Ḏu’l-qaʿda, 322/October, 934. 

  • ABŪ ZAYD KĀŠĀNĪ

    O. Watson

    a potter who signed a ceramic bowl in the enameled (mīnāʾī) technique dated 4 Moḥarram 582/26 March 1186.

  • ABŪ ZAYN KAḤḤĀL

    L. Richter-Bernburg

    author of the medical text Šarāyeṭ-e ǰarrāḥī; its dedication to the Timurid Šāhroḵ (r. 807-50/1404-47) provides the only context for his life.

  • ABU'L-KHAYRIDS

    Yuri Bregel

    name used for the dynasty that ruled the khanate of Bukhara in 906-1007/1500-99. Until recently, this dynasty was incorrectly called in Western literature “Shaybanids” (or “Shibanids”).

  • ABŪZAYDĀBĀD

    E. Yarshater

    Oasis village of the province of Kāšān, called Būzābād for short and Bīzeva in the local dialect. It is situated 30 km to the east and slightly to the south of the city of Kāšān.

  • ABŪZAYDĀBĀDĪ

    E. Yarshater

    (Būzābādī for short), a variety of the local dialects of Kāšān province, spoken in the village of Abūzaydābād and its farms, and belonging to the Central or Median group of Iranian dialects.

  • ABU’L-ʿABBĀS ʿANBARĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿANBARĪ.

  • ABU’L-ʿABBĀS MARVAZĪ

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    Sufi, jurist, and traditionist, one of the first poets to write in New Persian. 

  • ABU’L-ʿALĀʾ ʿAṬĀʾ

    C. E. Bosworth

    secretary and poet of the Ghaznavid period, d. 491/1098.

  • ABU’L-ʿALĀʾ GANJAVĪ

    Ż. Sajjādi

    6th/12th century poet at the court of Ḵāqān Faḵr-al-dīn Manūčehr Šervānšāh. 

  • ABU’L-ʿALĀʾ HAMADĀNĪ

    L. A. Giffen

    saintly specialist in the science of Koran readings (qerāʾāt) and Tradition, born in Hamadān in 488/1090 and died in 569/1173.

  • ABU’L-ʿALĀʾ ŠOŠTARĪ

    M. Zand

    early Persian poet and prosodist (the earliest known from the Šoštar area).

  • ABU’L-ʿAMAYṮAL

    I. Abbas

    Tahirid court poet.

  • ABU’L-ʿANBAS ṢAYMARĪ

    D. Pingree

    astrologer and author, born at Kūfa, 213/828; died 275/889. 

  • ABU’L-BAQĀʾ

    H. Algar

    author of Jāmeʿ al-maqāmāt on the life of the Naqšbandī saint, Mawlānā Ḵᵛāǰagī Kāsānī (d. 949/1542), written in 1028/1618.

  • ABU’L-BARAKĀT BAḠDĀDĪ

    W. Madelung

    5th-6th/11th-12th century physician and philosopher of Jewish origin, born in Balad, a town on the Tigris above Mosul.

  • ABU’L-BARAKĀT LĀHŪRĪ

    M. U. Memon

    Indo-Persian poet.

  • ABU’L-FARAJ BANNĀʾ

    O. Watson

    a potter known through a single signed piece reputedly found in Sāva.

  • ABU’L-FARAJ ʿEBRĪ

    Cross-Reference

    (b. Malaṭīa, 1225; d. Marāḡa, 1286), Syriac historian and polymath, also known as Bar Hebraeus. See EBN AL-ʿEBRĪ, ABU’L-FARAJ.

  • ABU’L-FARAJ EṢFAHĀNĪ

    K. Abū Deeb

    Author of the Ketāb al-aḡānī.

  • ABU’L-FARAJ RŪNĪ

    M. Siddiqi

    an early Persian poet. Nothing is known about his birth and early life, except that he was born in Rūna, the exact location of which is uncertain.

  • ABU’L-FARAJ SEJZĪ

    M. Dabīrsīāqī

    4th/10th century poet of Sīstān, author of several lost works on the art of poetry.

  • ABU’L-FATḤ EṢFAHĀNĪ

    D. Pingree

    An early 6th/12th century astronomer.

  • ABU’L-FATḤ ḤOSAYNĪ

    E. Glassen

    Shiʿite jurist, d. 976/1568-69.

  • ABU’L-FATḤ KHAN BAḴTĪĀRĪ

    J. R. Perry

    a chieftain of the Haft Lang branch of the Baḵtīārī and paramount chief (īlḵānī) of the tribe.

  • ABU’L-FATḤ KHAN JAVĀNŠĪR

    H. Busse

    son of the ruler of Qarābāḡ, Ebrāhīm Ḵalīl Khan Javānšīr, and through his sister brother-in-law of Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah. 

  • ABU’L-FATḤ KHAN ZAND

    H. Busse

    eldest son of Karīm Khan (Wakīl) of the Īnāq lineage of the Zand, b. 1169/1755-56.

  • ABU’L-FATḤ MĪRZĀ

    H. Algar

    (d. 1330/1912), Qajar prince who held a number of governorships.

  • ABU’L-FATḤ YŪSOF

    C. E. Bosworth

    Ghaznavid vizier of the early 6th/12th century.

  • ABU’L-FAYŻ KAMĀL-AL-DĪN SERHENDĪ

    J. G. J. ter Harr

    author of Rawżat al-qayyūmīya, a still unpublished taḏkera of the Naqšbandīya-Moǰaddedīya order in India. 

  • ABU’L-FAŻL ABŪ MOḤAMMAD

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD B. VĀSEʿ.

  • ABU’L-FAŻL ʿALLĀMĪ

    R. M. Eaton

    historian, officer, chief secretary, and confidant of the Mughal emperor Akbar I.

  • ABU’L-FAŻL GOLPĀYEGĀNĪ

    M. Momen

    prominent Bahaʾi scholar and apologist.

  • ABU’L-FAŻL ḴOTTALĪ

    H. Algar

    (d. 453/1061?), preceptor of Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī Hoǰvīrī (d. 465/1073), the author of the celebrated Persian treatise on Sufism, Kašf al-maḥǰūb.

  • ABU’L-FAŻL MĪKĀL

    S. ʿA. Anwār

    author and poet, d. 436/1045.

  • ABU’L-FAŻL SĀVAJĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    (1248-1312/1832-95), a scholar, calligrapher, poet, and physician active in Qajar court circles.

  • ABU’L-FAŻL ŠĪRĀZĪ

    L. A. Giffen

    vizier in the time of the Buyids, patron of the Shiʿi Arab poet Ebn al-Ḥaǰǰāǰ, born in Shiraz in 303/915, died at Kūfa in 362/973.

  • ABU’L-FAŻL TĀJ-AL-DĪN

    C. E. Bosworth

    amir of the line of later Saffarids, sometimes called the third dynasty of Saffarids and, by a historian like Jūzǰānī, the “Maleks of Nīmrūz and Seǰestān.”

  • ABU’L-FOTŪḤ EṢFAHĀNĪ

    J. A. Wakin

    known also by his laqab Montaǰab-al-dīn (or in some sources Montaḵab-al-dīn), a well-known Shafeʿite scholar and traditionist.

  • ABU’L-FOTŪḤ RĀZĪ

    M. J. McDermott

    Shiʿite commentator on the Koran who lived in the first half of the 6th/12th century.

  • ABU’L-ḠĀZĪ BAHĀDOR KHAN

    B. Spuler

    khan of Ḵīva (r. 1054-74/1644 to 1663-64) and Čaḡatāy historian.

  • ABU’L-ḤASAN AHWĀZĪ

    D. Pingree

    astronomer, fl. after ca. 215/830. 

  • ABU’L-ḤASAN EṢFAHĀNĪ

    H. Algar

    (1284-1365/1867-1946), an Iranian moǰtahed who was a leading religious authority in the Shiʿite world for more than thirty years.

  • ABU’L-ḤASAN ESFARĀʾĪNĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    first vizier for the Ghaznavid sultan Maḥmūd (r. 388-421/998-1030). 

  • ABU’L-ḤASAN GOLESTĀNA

    R. D. McChesney

    vizier of Kermānšāhān and chronicler of post-Afsharid Iran.

  • ABU’L-ḤASAN HERAVĪ

    D. Pingree

    medieval mathematician.

  • ABU’L-ḤASAN JORJĀNĪ

    M. Dabīrsīāqī

    9th-century Shafeʿite jurist, poet, and man of letters.

  • ABU’L-ḤASAN ḴARAQĀNĪ

    H. Landolt

    (352-425/963-1033), Sufi shaikh of Ḵaraqān, some 20 km north of Basṭām in Khorasan.

  • ABU’L-ḤASAN KHAN ARDALĀN

    Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī

    (b. 1279/1862-63), government official under the late Qajars.

  • ABU’L-ḤASAN KHAN ḠAFFĀRĪ

    B. W. Robinson

    In 1842 an oil portrait of Moḥammad Shah secured him a position as a court artist. His style by now was formed; in oil painting it was refinement on that of Mehr-ʿAlī; but his miniature paintings and portraits show originality, naturalism, and technical perfection.

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  • ABU’L-ḤASAN KHAN ĪLČĪ

    H. Javadi

    Persian diplomat, b. 1190/1776 in Šīrāz. 

  • ABU’L-ḤASAN KHAN MAḤALLĀTĪ

    H. Busse

    imam of the Nezārī Ismaʿilis of the Qāsemšāhī line, beglerbegi of Kermān under Karīm Khan Zand and his successors from approximately 1181/1768 to 1206/1791-92.

  • ABU’L-ḤASAN KHAN MOJTAHED

    H. Algar

    (1806-63), member of a prominent family of Shiraz who led a turbulent life alternating between government service and the cultivation of religious knowledge in a manner unusual in Qajar Iran.

  • ABU’L-ḤASAN MOSTAWFĪ

    F. Gaffary

    painter and historian of the 12th/18th century from Kāšān, son of Mīrzā Moʿezz-al-dīn Moḥammad Ḡaffārī.

  • ABU’L-ḤASAN NĀDER-AL-ZAMĀN

    D. Duda

    ABU’L-HASAN NADER-AL-ZAMAN was held in great esteem by Jahāngīr, who had him trained to be a court painter like his father and gave him the honorary title Nāder-al-zamān (Wonder of the Age). By their use of color and line, father and son together noticeably strengthened the Persian elements in the Mughal painting of the period.

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  • ABU’L-ḤASAN ŠAMSĀBĀDĪ

    H. Algar

    (1326-96/1908-76), an influential moǰtahed of Isfahan who was murdered on 7 April 1976 under mysterious circumstances.

  • ABU’L-ḤASAN TAFREŠĪ

    L. Richter-Bernburg

    (1261-1323/1845 to 1905-06), medical instructor, author, and public health official in late Qajar Persia.

  • ABU’L-ḤASAN ṬĀLAQĀNĪ

    H. Algar

    (?-1350/1932), religious scholar and father of the celebrated Āyatallāh Maḥmūd Ṭālaqānī.

  • ABU’L-HAYJĀ NAJMĪ

    Ḏ. Ṣafā

    Persian poet of the 5th-6th/11th-12th centuries.

  • ABU’L-HAYṮAM GORGĀNĪ

    H. Corbin

    Ismaʿili philosopher, for a long time one of the great unknown figures in the history of Irano-Islamic philosophy.

  • ABU’L-HOḎAYL AL-ʿALLĀF

    J. van Ess

    (ca. 135-227/752-841?), early Muʿtazilite theologian of universal reputation.

  • ABU’L-ḤOSAYN BAṢRĪ

    D. Gimaret

    Muʿtazilite theologian and lawyer, d. 436/1044. 

  • ABU’L-ḤOSAYN KĀTEB

    C. E. Bosworth

    official of the Buyids and writer in Arabic of the 4th/10th century. 

  • ABU’L-JĀRŪD HAMDĀNĪ

    W. Madelung

    Kufan Shiʿite scholar and leader of the early Zaydite group named after him, the Jārūdīya.

  • ABU’L-ḴAṬṬĀB ASADĪ

    A. Sachedina

    Founder of the extremist Shiʿite sect Ḵaṭṭābīya.

  • ABU’L-ḴAYR B. AL-ḴAMMĀR

    W. Madelung

    Nestorian Christian physician, philosopher, theologian, and translator, b. Rabīʿ I, 331/November, 942 in Baghdad.

  • ABU’L-ḴAYR KHAN

    Y. Bregel

    A descendant of Šïban (the younger son of Joči) and ruler of the Uzbek nomadic state in Dašt-e Qïpčaq in the 15th century.

  • ABU’L-LAYṮ SAMARQANDĪ

    J. van Ess

    productive Hanafite jurist, author of a Koran commentary and of popular paraenetical works.

  • ABU’L-MAʿĀLĪ

    J. van Ess

    Author of Bayān al-adyān, the oldest work on religions and sects written in Persian (11th-12th centuries).

  • ABU’L-MAʿṢŪM MĪRZĀ

    D. Duda

    Safavid painter, portraitist, draftsman, engraver, and expert in artistic bookbinding and restoring who was extolled by the historian Qāżī Aḥmad (16th century).

  • ABU’L-MAṮAL BOḴĀRĪ

    J. W. Clinton

    (or BOḴĀRĀʾĪ), a poet of the Samanid court.

  • ABU’L-MOʾAYYAD BALḴĪ

    G. Lazard

    An early Persian poet and writer of the Samanid period, whose works have almost entirely disappeared.

  • ABU’L-MOẒAFFAR ḴᵛĀFĪ

    H. Halm

    Shafeʿite jurist and traditionist (d. in Ṭūs in 500/1106) . He was one of the most important students of Emām-al-ḥaramayn Jovaynī.

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿABDALLĀH KĀŠĀNĪ

    P. P. Soucek

    Historian of the reign of the Il-khan Olǰāytū and member of the Abū Ṭāher family of potters (14th century). 

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿALĪ B. ḤASAN

    C. E. Bosworth

    Vizier to the atabeg of Lorestān Šams-al-dawla Ḡāzī Beg Aydoḡmuš (7th/13th century).

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿALĪ B. MOḤAMMAD

    R. W. Bulliet

    A wealthy dehqān from Sabzavār who was prominent as a founder of madrasas in the second decade of the 5th/11th century.

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM EBRĀHĪM ḤAṢĪRĪ

    Cross-Reference

    Shafeʿite faqīh (jurist) and Ghaznavid official, d. 424/1033. See ABŪ BAKR ḤAṢĪRĪ.

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM EBRĀHĪM SOLṬĀN

    EIr

    The only son of Kāmrān Mīrza, brother and rival of the Mughal emperor Homāyūn (r. 937-47, 962-63/1530-40, 1555-56).

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM ESḤĀQ SAMARQANDI

    W. Madelung

    Hanafite scholar, Sufi, and judge (qāżī) of Samarqand (9th-10th centuries).

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM HĀRŪN

    K. A. Luther

    Vizier of Atabeg Ozbek b. Moḥammad b. Eldagōz, ruler of Azerbaijan, 607-22/1210-25.

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM KAʿBĪ

    J. van Ess

    Administrator and intellectual of Persian descent, Hanafite jurist and foremost representative of the Moʿtazela in Khorasan (d. Šaʿbān, 319/February, 931).

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM KERMĀNĪ

    D. Pingree

    Author of a Ketāb fī oṣūl al-aḥkām (“Book concerning the foundations of astrological judgments”).

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM KHAN EBRĀHĪMĪ

    D. MacEoin

    Fourth head of the Kermānī branch of the Šayḵī school of Shiʿism (19th-20th centuries).

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM KŪFĪ

    L. Giffen

    Scholar of philosophy, theology, and other disciplines who was at first an Emāmī Shiʿite but later embraced a form of extreme Shiʿism (d. near Šīrāz, 352/962).

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM MOḤAMMAD ASLAM

    S. Moinul Haq

    (pen name MONʿEMĪ), 18th-century historian of Kashmir.

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM NĀʾĪNĪ

    L. Richter-Bernburg

    Major representative (practitioner, instructor, author) of traditional medicine in late Qajar Persia (1245-1322/1829-30 to 1904-05).

  • ABU’L-QĀSEM SAʿĪD

    D. Duda

    ABU’L-QASEM SAID's name is preserved in the colophon of a Koran manuscript written in early nasḵī script. In the colophon the scribe calls himself the son or grandson of a pupil of Jawharī. That famous Arab lexicographer (originally from Turkestan) after extensive travels, settled in Nīšāpūr to teach, copy books, and pursue a literary career.

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  • ABU’L-QĀSEM SOLṬĀN

    M. H. Pathan

    Bēglār chief of Sind, b. at Nasarpur, Sind, in 969/1562.

  • ABU’L-RAYḤĀN BĪRŪNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    Scholar and polymath of the period of the late Samanids and early Ghaznavids and one of the two greatest intellectual figures of his time in the eastern lands of the Muslim world (362/973-after 442/1050). See BĪRŪNĪ, ABU’L-RAYḤĀN.

  • ABU’L-RAYYĀN EṢFAHĀNĪ

    C. Cahen

    Buyid vizier (10th century).

  • ABU’L-ŠAYḴ EṢFAHĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    Traditionist and Koran commentator, important principally for his Ṭabaqāt al-moḥaddeṯī (274-369/887-979). See EṢFAHĀNĪ, ABU’L-ŠAYḴ.

  • ABU’L-TAYYEB ṬABARĪ

    J. Wakin

    Jurisconsult, judge (qāżī), and professor of legal sciences; he was regarded by his contemporaries as one of the leading Shafeʿites of 5th/11th century Baghdad.

  • ABU’L-ṬAYYEB ṬĀHER

    M. Forstner

    founder of the Taherid dynasty of Khorasan; born 139/775-76 in Pūšang (Būšang), died 207/822 in Marv.

  • ABU’L-WAFĀ B. SAʿID

    D. Pingree

    Author in Persian (15th century).

  • ABU’L-WAFĀ BŪZJĀNI

    D. Pingree

    Mathematician and astronomer (10th-11th century).

  • ABU’L-WAFĀʾ ḴᵛĀRAZMĪ

    H. Landolt

    Famous Sufi of Kobrawī affiliation, esoterist, scholar, poet, and musician (d. 835/1431-32).

  • ABU’L-WAFĀʾ ŠĪRĀZĪ

    H. Algar

    Sufi of Shiraz, morīd of the well-known preacher, mystic and writer, Shah Dāʿī Elā Allāh Šīrāzī (fl. 10th/16th century).

  • ABU’L-WAZIR MARVAZĪ

    L. A. Giffen

    Secretary and author (d. 186/802).

  • ABU’L-YANBAḠĪ

    Y. Richard

    Iranian poet (d. 230/844).

  • ABYĀNA

    E. Yarshater

    From a number of lingering old customs and practices it appears that the total conversion of Abyāna from Zoroastrianism to Islam took place relatively late. The inhabitants exhibit with pride an awareness of the ancient customs of the village.

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  • ABYĀNAʾĪ

    E. Yarshater

    Dialect spoken in the village of Abyāna, one of a number of closely similar dialects spoken in the villages of Kāšān and its neighboring districts, all belonging to the Central Dialects of Iran (or Southern Median).

  • ĀBYĀR

    E. Ehlers

    Title of the person given official charge of the irrigation of ābī “irrigated” lands.

  • ĀBYĀRĪ

    B. Spooner

    Persian term meaning "irrigation." Although dry farming is important in Azerbaijan, Kurdistan, and Khorasan, as well as some other districts, a large proportion of Iran’s agriculture has always depended upon irrigation. This article concentrates on the preindustrial forms that not only have been important in the evolution of Iranian culture and civilization but have constituted an important Iranian contribution to the development of water management systems in other parts of the world.

  • ABZARĪ, ḴᵛĀJA ʿAMĪD-AL-DĪN

    A. E. Khairallah

    Poet and the vizier of the Salghurid Atabeg of Fārs Saʿd b. Zangī (594-623/1197-1226).

  • ABZŌN

    M. F. Kanga

    Middle Persian term meaning “prosperity, increase” in Zoroastrianism.

  • Ab~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the Ab entries