FAḴRĀʾĪ, EBRĀHĪM REŻĀZĀDA (b. 1278/1899 in Rašt, d. 16 Bahman 1366 Š./5 February 1988 in Tehran), educator, journalist, lawyer, and scholar. His father, Ḥājī Reżā, was a merchant in Rašt and a member of the Provincial Council (Anjoman-e eyālatī) of Gīlān during the Constitutional Revolution (q.v.). Ebrāhīm began his education in a local maktab (see education iii) at age five but later pursued modern education at Majīdīya and Ettefāq primary schools and Šams secondary school. At age sixteen, upon completion of the eighth grade, he went to the Collège Patriarcale in Beirut for further education but the spread of World War I forced him to return to Persia after seventeen months. In Tehran he studied at Sīrūs high schools and Dār al-fonūn (q.v.), where he received the certificate of the tenth grade. In summer 1336/1918 he went to meet Mīrzā Kūček Khan (q.v.), the leader of the Jangalī movement, at his headquarters in Gūrāb-zarmak. He joined the movement and stayed with it until its defeat in the fall of 1921, eventually becoming the supervisor of its cultural affairs (Faḵrāʾī, pp. 43-47).

In 1922 he became an educator and served as principal at Saʿdī primary school in Anzalī (q.v.). Two years later he started teaching history, Persian, and French at high schools nos. 1 and 2 in Rašt (idem, p. 76). During these years he was also engaged in journalism and served as the editor of Ṭolūʿ, writing editorials sharply critical of the government. In 1928 he published the magazine Forūḡ, which lasted only a year. In the same year he was dismissed from his teaching position in Rašt, allegedly for having incited students to strike and for his support of a student expelled from the school. He went to Tehran, where he became a high school principal.

In 1933 Faḵrāʾī took courses in law offered by the Ministry of Justice and received a license to practice law. As lawyer and judge, he worked in Arāk, Ardabīl, Borūjerd, Rašt, Qazvīn, Malāyer, and Tehran. He was also one of the founders of the bar association in Persia.

In 1945 he published Forūḡ for another year and served as secretary of the Jangal party, which was organized by some of Kūček Khan’s old associates and which, along with the nationalist Īrān party, joined the coalition with the Tudeh (Tūda) party. He retired from government service in 1954 (idem, p. 109). He died and was buried in Tehran, but in Dey 1370 Š./January 1992 his remains were moved to Rašt and reinterred near the tomb of Mīrzā Kūček Khan.

Works: Sardār-e jangal, Tehran, 1344 Š./1965; Gīlān dar jonbeš-e mašrūṭīyat, Tehran, 1352 Š./1973; Gīlān dar goḏargāh-e zamān, Tehran, 1354 Š./1975; Gīlān dar qalamrov-e šeʿr o adab, Tehran, 1356 Š./1977; and Gozīda-ye adabīyāt-e gīlakī, Rašt, 1358 Š./1979. School textbooks: Ganjīna-ye adab, Rašt, 1303 Š./1924; Aḵlāq, Rašt, 1304/1925; Tārīḵ-e Īrān, Rašt, 1307 Š./1928; Taʿlīmāt-e madanī, 1307 Š./1928. A few of his articles are listed in Ī. Afšār, Fehrest-e maqālāt-e fārsī I, Tehran, 1348 Š./1969.



E. Faḵrāʾī, “Nemād-ī az yak zīst,” [autobiography] in R. Reżāzāda Langarūdī, ed., Yādgār-nāma-ye Ebrāhīm Faḵrāʾī, Tehran, 1363 Š./1984, pp. 1-232.

(Moḥammad-Taqī Pūr Aḥmad Jaktājī)

Originally Published: December 15, 1999

Last Updated: January 20, 2012

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Vol. IX, Fasc. 2, p. 165