ETTEḤĀD, title of eleven Persian language newspapers.
1. A royalist weekly published in Tabrīz, one of three anti-Constitutionalist newspapers published there. It began publication in Ḏu’l-qaʿda 1324/December 1906-January 1907 and lasted for five issues. It was published by Mīrzā Aḥmad Kāteb Baṣīr-al-ʿOlamāʾ (Baṣīrat) as the organ of his reactionary Anjoman-e eslāmīya.
2. A biweekly newspaper published in Tehran, twenty issues of which appeared between 28 Rabīʿ I/12 May and 18 Rajab 1325/28 August 1907. Its publisher, Moʿtamed-al-Eslām Raštī, also published Baladīya and Šūrā-ye baladī (Tehran, 1325/1907), Yādgār-e enqelāb (Qazvīn, Tehran, 1327/1909), and Waqt (Rašt, 1304 Š./1925). It was reformist in orientation and published national news and reports of the proceedings of the Majles. The format was four two-column pages, 22 x 35 cm, lithographed, carrying no illustrations. Subscription was 15 qerāns in Tehran, 2 tomans in the provinces, 5 rubles in Russia, and 8 rupees in India. Copies are accessible at Central Library (Ketāb-ḵāna-ye markazī) of Tehran University; Asia Institute (Moʾassasa-ye āsīāʾī) in Shiraz; Cambridge University Library; and Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.
3. A constitutionalist newspaper published twice a week in Tabrīz by the reformist Moḥammad-ʿAlī Tarbīat, who had previously been involved with Ganjīna-ye fonūn (Tabrīz, 1320-21/1903) and later published Ganjīna-ye maʿāref (Tabrīz, 1301 Š./1922). Twenty-one issues appeared between 1 Ṣafar and 12 Jomādā I 1326/5 March–12 June 1908; according to Tarbīat (p. 406), there were actually 25 issues. It appeared at the end of a two-month period in which there had been no constitutionalist newspaper in Tabrīz to oppose the royalist Mollā ʿAmū. Its features and news dealt mainly with domestic developments, but it also included the political play Ašraf Khan, ḥākem-e ʿArabestān by Mīrzā Malkam Khan. It was one of the first newspapers to support British policies in Persia. The format was four to eight two-column pages, typeset, 21 x 23 cm, carrying no illustrations, priced 2 šāhīs in Tabrīz and 3 šāhīs elsewhere in Persia. The cost of subscription was 12, 16, and 20 qerāns in Tabrīz, in other provinces, and abroad, respectively. Copies are accessible at the Central Library of Tehran University, Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris), and Cambridge University Library.
4. A lithographed weekly, two or three issues of which are said by Rabino (no. 4) to have been published in Yazd in 1328/1910.
5. A semi-weekly nationalist newspaper published in Hamadān from 29 Jomādā II 1332 to 5 Jomādā II 1333/25 May 1914-2 April 1915. Its publisher was the poet Moḥammad Yūsof Yūsofzāda (Ḡamām), the founder of Anjoman-e etteḥād in Hamadān, who had previously published Olfat (Hamadān, 1325/1907). Its editor was the writer Shaikh Mūsā Naṯrī. The format was four two-column pages, carrying no illustrations, priced 4 šāhīs. The subscription rate was 24 šāhīs in Hamadān, 29 qerāns elsewhere in Persia. Copies are accessible at the Majles Library and Harvard University Library.
6. Newspaper published in Tehran from 31 Asad 1300 to 17 ʿAqrab 1302 Š./23 August 1921-10 December 1923; Elwell-Sutton (p. 76) and others incorrectly date its first publication as 1925. Except for a short period as a daily, it was published three times a week. Its publisher was Sayyed Kāẓem Sarkešīkzāda, who later adopted Etteḥād as a family name and was close to Fīrūz Mīrzā Noṣrat-al-Dawla (Etteḥādīya and Saʿdvandīān, eds., I, pp. 120-24). He edited Īrān in 1927-30, founded the satirical weekly Omīd in 1308 Š./1929, and revived Etteḥād in 1325 Š./1947 (no. 8 below). It initially supported the first government of Aḥmad Qawām (Qawām-al-Salṭana), but later turned against him, leading to its suspension at the prime minister’s order. The format was four to eight five-column pages, usually 40 x 47 cm, priced initially 6 qerāns. The subscription rate was 70 qerāns. Its complete set is accessible at the National Library (Ketāb-ḵāna-ye mellī), Tehran; copies are also available at the Asia Library (Shiraz), the Āstān-e qods (Mašhad), the Central Library of Tehran University; and the École des Langues Orientales et Civilisations (Paris).
7. Government newspaper published in northern Afghanistan. First published on 21 ʿAqrab 1308 Š./ 12 November 1929 in Ḵānābād in the province of Qaṭaḡan, it was moved to Baḡlān in 1326 Š./1947 when a printing plant was established there. It was still being published, with some interruptions, in 1992 and is thought by some to be a continuation of Eṣlāḥ (q.v.) or Nahżat-al-Ḥabīb (Sarvar Jūyā, p. 70). It was a weekly until its eighteenth year, when it became semi-weekly, and has been a daily since 1967. Its first editor and publisher was Mawlawī Moḥammad-Bašīr Khan. He was succeeded after the establishment of the Directorate of Publications (Rīāsat-e maṭbūʿāt) by Moḥammad-Arsalān Salīmī. Under the regime of the Communist Ḵalq party its editor was Šafīq-Allāh Mošfeq. It contained both international and domestic news, particularly of northern Afghanistan. It was initially published only in Persian, but by the 1960s it appeared mostly in Pashtu. Later, Persian became predominant again . Lithographed, its format was four to eight two-column pages, 21.5 x 34.5 cm; after ʿAqrab 1325 Š./November 1946, five columns, 29.5 x 42 cm, typographed, carrying illustrations; after 1967, four to six six-column pages, 35.5 x 48.5 cm. The cost of ubscriptions was 5 to 100 afḡānīs. Scattered issues are accessible in Afghan libraries and the Library of Congress.
8. A Tehran daily published from 23 Esfand 1325 Š./14 March 1947 until the coup d’état of 1332 Š./1953 (q.v.), though with long interruptions, by Kāẓem Etteḥād, publisher of Etteḥād no. 6 (see above). During a suspension in Ordībehešt 1326 Š./April-May 1947, it was replaced by Možda. Its first managing director was Manūčehr Āryan, and its editor during its later years was Aḥmad Yazdānbaḵš. It identified itself as the organ of the Etteḥād party. Format was four to eight six-column pages, 36 x 50 cm, carrying some illustrations and advertisements, and priced 2 rials. Scattered issues are accessible at the Central Library of Tehran University and the Āstān-e qods (Mašhad).
Three Persian newspapers bearing this title were printed in Europe by opponents of the Persian and Afghan governments.
1. A weekly published briefly in Paris as the organ of the Federation of Iranian Students in France (Federāsīūn-e moḥaṣṣelīn o dānešjūyān-e īrānī dar Farānsa; chapter of the Confederation of Iranian Students, q.v.) beginning in the fall of 1976.
2. A newspaper published irregularly beginning in the fall of 1983 in Copenhagen as Našrīya-ye etteḥād-e eslāmī-e mojāhedīn-e Afḡānestān az Orūpā.
3. A newspaper published briefly in Paris beginning in the spring of 1985, identifying itself as the organ of the Alliance for the Freedom of Iran (Etteḥād barā-ye āzādī-e Īrān).
Bibliography (for cited works not given in detail, see “Short References”):
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Originally Published: December 15, 1998
Last Updated: January 20, 2012
This article is available in print.
Vol. IX, Fasc. 1, pp. 55-57