BAHMAN JĀDŪYA

(or Jāḏōē), Sasanian general engaged in the defense of the Sawād of ʿErāq during the Muslim conquest in the 630s.  

 

BAHMAN JĀDŪYA (or Jāḏōē), Sasanian general engaged in the defense of the Sawād of ʿErāq during the Muslim conquest in the 630s. He belonged to the Median or Pahlavi faction led by Rostam at Madāʾen and had a reputation for being anti-Arab. Because of his bushy eyebrows he was called Ḏu’l-Ḥājeb (owner of bushy eyebrows) as was Mardānšāh. During Ḵāled b. Walīd’s raid in 12/633 he was sent with an army to back up the forces of Andarzaḡar, who had gone to oppose Ḵāled in the territory of Kaskar. When Ḵāled defeated Andarzaḡar at Walaja the survivors joined Bahman Jādūya, who left Jābān in charge of local defense in the western Sawād and returned to Madāʾen. During the rest of Ḵāled’s campaign he camped with the vanguard outside Madāʾen.

During Abū ʿObayd b. Masʿūd Ṯaqafī’s campaign in the Sawād in 13/634, Rostam sent Bahman Jādūya against him with a force which included elephants and the royal leopard-skin standard (Derafš-e Kāvīān). He turned the Muslims back at Bābel west of the Tigris, drove them across the Euphrates, and camped at Qoss al-Nāṭef on the east bank. Abū ʿObayd camped at Marwaḥa across the river, and when he crossed the Euphrates on a floating bridge and attacked the Persians, Bahman Jādūya caught the Muslims with their backs to the river and inflicted a serious defeat on them in the Battle of the Bridge (yawm al-jesr) in the fall of 13/634. Abū ʿObayd was trampled to death by an elephant, the bridge was broken by an Arab, and some 4,000 Arabs perished by drowning. Moṯannā b. Ḥāreṯa Šaybānī managed to retie the bridge and rallied 3,000 Arab survivors, although some of them returned to Madīna. Bahman Jādūya was unable to follow up this victory because, as his army was about to cross the river, news came that the faction of the people of Fārs under Fīrūzān at Madāʾen had overthrown Rostam-e Farroḵzād and his faction, and Bahman Jādūya was dismissed and recalled to the capital.

Bahman Jādūya also fought in the center of the Sasanian army under Rostam-e Farroḵzād at the battle of Qādesīya in 16/637, where he was killed by Qaʿqāʿ b. ʿAmr Tamīmī in revenge for the death of Abū ʿObayd and the others killed at the Battle of the Bridge. The claim that he fought and was killed at the battle of Nehāvand is due to confusing him with Mardānšāh.

 

Bibliography:

Balāḏorī, Fotūḥ, pp. 251-52, 255.

Ebn al-Aṯīr (repr.), II, pp. 387f., 393f., 438-41, 461, 472, 474.

Justi, Namenbuch, pp. 107, 374.

Masʿūdī, Morūj IV, pp. 212-13.

Ṭabarī, I, pp. 2030, 2032, 2053, 2060, 2174-77, 2179f., 2182, 2258, 2260, 2300, 2306, 2309, 2618.

(M. Morony)

Originally Published: December 15, 1988

Last Updated: August 23, 2011

This article is available in print.
Vol. III, Fasc. 5, p. 490