ANJOMANĀRĀ, FARHANG-E, Persian-language dictionary compiled by Reżā-qolī Khan Hedāyat (1215-88/1800-71) known as Lala-bāšī. In the introductory section, written by a Zoroastrian named Mānekǰī-pūr Līmǰī Hūšang Hātarīya Kayānī (known as Darvīš Fānī) the title appears as Anǰomanārā-ye Hūšang, but the first and last pages are headed Anǰomanārā-ye Nāṣerī, and the author’s preface contains a eulogy of Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah Qāǰār. In the preface the author states that he undertook the work because of the unreliability of earlier dictionaries; he names these and other works consulted burt nowhere does he mention any system of word ordering or classification, and there are inconsistencies throughout. Twelve “adornments” (ārāyeš), or chapters, make up the introductory section: (1) identification of arabicized, indigenous, and miscellaneous words; (2) explanation of certain Persian and Arabic words and their variants; (3) enumeration of certain words incorrectly entered in some earlier dictionaries such as Borhān-e qāṭeʿ; (4) enumeration of erroneous definitions in these works; (5) a study of the Persian language, its evolution, figures of speech, prose and verse usage; (6) enumeration of the letters of the alphabet and determination of correct spelling; (7) enumeration of orthographic changes and rules concerning pronouns; (8) “useful points;” (9) rules for recognizing the infinitive and its characteristics, enumeration of verbal nouns and letters used to form them, conjugation of past and present tenses; (10) technical terms of grammar; (11) description of the verb; (l2) description of the noun. The body of the work consists of two parts: the word lists, which are divided into twenty-four “assemblies” (anǰoman), and a conclusion consisting of two “finishing touches” (pīrāyeš) on Persian and Arabic tropes and metaphors.

The contents of the Anǰomanārā indicate that Reżā-qolī Khan based his work mainly on the Farhang-e Rašīdī (1064/1654), Borhān-e qāṭeʿ (1062/1652), and Farhang-e Jahāngīrī (1017/1608-09). Not all of the erroneous word forms that he cites appear in the revised printed editions of the earlier dictionaries in question, probably because inaccurate manuscripts of these works were in circulation and in Reżā-qolī Khan’s possession. His innovations are basically limited to the insertion of words from the Dasātīr (sayings of Mahābād, a fictitious ancient sage) and the citation of verse examples. There are two lithographed editions of the Farhang-e anǰomanārā. The first is dated 1 Jomādā I 1288/1871, which was forty days after the author’s death; apparently during the last months of his life his son ʿAlī-qolī Khan Moḵber-al-dawla completed the editing and preparation for the press. The second edition (Tehran, 1340 Š./1961) is in offset copy of the first.



See also M. ʿA. Dāʿī-e Eslām, Farhang-e Neẓām, Hyderabad (Deccan), 1357/1938.

Dehḵodā, preface, p. 219, and s.v.

Anǰomanārā. D. N. MacKenzie, “Ḳāmūs,” in EI2 IV, pp. 515-27.

Ḡ. Mosāḥeb, ed., Dāʾerat al-maʿāref-e Fārsī, Tehran, 1345 Š./1966, I, p. 261.

(R. ʿAfīfī)

Originally Published: December 15, 1985

Last Updated: August 5, 2011

This article is available in print.
Vol. II, Fasc. 1, pp. 95-96