AMASYA, PEACE OF (8 Raǰab 962/29 May 1555), treaty signed between Iran and the Ottomans and observed for some twenty years. After their great defeat by the Ottomans at Čālderān in 920/1514, the Safavids avoided open battle and employed tactics of delay and scorched earth. The Ottomans made drives into Iranian territory, but each time difficulties of supply and guerrilla counterattacks prevented a longer stay. Eventually both sides suffered from exhausted resources and demoralized troops. On 7 Ramażān 961 /6 August 1554, the Iranians sent a Turkish captive with a peace offer into the Ottoman camp near Bāyazīd (today: Doğu Beyazıt). On 28 Šawwāl/26 September 1554, Šāh-qolī Āqā arrived as Shah Ṭahmās p ’s official envoy in Erzurum, where Sultan Solaymān was encamped. The peace offer was doubtless welcome to the Ottomans, since they were not able to gain a decisive victory and were also fighting against the Habsburgs at their Western border; it was accepted, and an armistice was agreed upon until the signing of the treaty. On 18 Jomādā II 962/10 May 1555 the chief doorkeeper (īšīk-āqāsī) Kamāl-al-dīn Farroḵzāda Beg arrived in Amasya, where Solaymān was camped for the winter season. The treaty was signed nineteen days later. Iran recognized Ottoman sovereignty over its empire and agreed to respect the border and keep neighborly relations; furthermore, out of deference to the Sunnite Ottomans, official cursing of Abū Bakr and ʿOmar would be discontinued. For their part the Ottomans guaranteed Iranian pilgrims free passage to Mecca, Medina, Karbalā, and Naǰaf. The treaty enabled the Ottomans to devote themselves to the western front and internal problems. Iran was able to consolidate its forces and resources, while its western provinces were able to recover from war. The peace was kept by both sides until the death of Shah Ṭahmāsb (984/1576), when the ensuing troubles in Iran encouraged the Ottomans to occupy those regions of the Caucasus claimed by both countries.
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Originally Published: December 15, 1989
Last Updated: August 2, 2011
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Vol. I, Fasc. 9, p. 928